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      1 - Bānu Gošasb, A Scythian heroine
      marzie azimi Roozbeh zarrinkoob
      Issue 56 , Volume 18 , Spring 2020
      Bānu Gošasb is a famous heroine who has always been considered because of her special personality.The question that arises is about the origin of such a character and such a heroine.This heroine always has been related to goddesses, while mythological, historical, and s Full Text
      Bānu Gošasb is a famous heroine who has always been considered because of her special personality.The question that arises is about the origin of such a character and such a heroine.This heroine always has been related to goddesses, while mythological, historical, and sociological origins have been supposed for her, and also, some researchers introduce her emanating either from matriarchal culture or patriarchal culture. In this essay, following the traces of her origin, we raise this question “Is Bānu Gošasb a Scythian heroine”?For this purpose, we refer to the Scythia of the Rostam family. Afterwards, we gather the features of Scythians, Sarmatians, and Scythians females;Because Bānu Gošasb is Rostam's daughter and if Rostam is from Scythian family, his daughter is also a Scythian lady.We examine the character of Bānu Gošasbin various texts and finally compare her characteristics with Scythian women. The result of this study shows that many characteristics of Bānu Gošasb and Scythian women are common and Bānu Gošasb is a Scythian heroine. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Rightward Scramblingin Translation (From Persian Language to English langugae)
      Mohammad Dabirmoghaddam Vida Shaghaghi Mojtaba Monshizadeh Seyyed Hussein Piri
      Issue 56 , Volume 18 , Spring 2020
      Scrambling has optional nature and a significant contribution to the discourse functional interpretation of clauses in Persian. Since scrambling is, unlike English, one of the features of Persian, the analysis of the scrambled clauses and their translated equivalents se Full Text
      Scrambling has optional nature and a significant contribution to the discourse functional interpretation of clauses in Persian. Since scrambling is, unlike English, one of the features of Persian, the analysis of the scrambled clauses and their translated equivalents seem essential to improve their translation accuracy and quality. Therefore, this study which is of descriptive-analytical and corpus based aims to investigate the impact of rightward scrambling on Persian clauses and analyze their English translated equivalents. To this end, 297 Persian rightward scrambled clauses out of 5247 clauses were collected and analyzed along with their English translated equivalents within Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar (2014). The results show that rightward scrambling makes marked themes through rearrangements of themeta-functions. However, the translators have not paid enough attention to these clauses. In addition, Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar (2014) can be efficient means of evaluating the translation accuracy of these clauses into English. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Analysis of Contradictions in Shams Tabrizi's Thought from a Psychological Perspective
      مریم  عاملی رضایی foad Moloudi
      Issue 56 , Volume 18 , Spring 2020
      In the process of psychological development of any human subject and in order to his socialization, the mind has to learn the categorizations and classifications.Social subject learns to classify the objects, phenomena and concepts in the form of opposites and opposit Full Text
      In the process of psychological development of any human subject and in order to his socialization, the mind has to learn the categorizations and classifications.Social subject learns to classify the objects, phenomena and concepts in the form of opposites and opposite pairs, and this categorization is one of the necessary conditions for entering the social life and world of signs. The necessity of these categorizations necessitates the acceptance of structural rules; in other words, human being shall first give structure to the world for concept making, and giving structure is not possible except in the form of contrary couples.This point is one of the main foundations of structuralism and other similar items in the field of language, mind and social issues.But, if we study the psyche in an original and pre-cultural state, the contradictions indicate the decrease and simplification, and only shows the direction of libido power in socialization current. In other words, the psychic force in its pre-cultural state is a homogenous, unique and united issue experiencing the dissension during the socialization current.This desire to return to the world of unity has appeared in the intuitive thinking and in the epistemological system of our Muslim mystics in the form of the ideas of existential unity. The image of this unified world, in which most of the main contradictions are united in their infrastructure, in the form of a language that is the essence of contrasts, has caused some mystical texts get the paradoxical property and some considerable facilities made therein. In this regard, Shams Tabrizi's articles are one of the most prominent texts.In the present paper, based on the mentioned psychoanalytic concepts, we have shown that in the infrastructure of Shams's thought, the existing contradictions at the level of conscious and social matter are discarded and Shams views them as naturally harmonic affairs in a new epistemological approach. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Representation of hegemony and anti-hegemony in thediscourse of Bahar's "Jomhoori"poem based on Antonio Gramsci's views
      reza ghanbari abdolmaleki ailin firooziyan
      Issue 56 , Volume 18 , Spring 2020
      Hegemony is generally defined as a kind of intellectual-cultural leadership that is applied to the majority of people by a dominant group. In the meantime, the anti-hegemonic groups have a kind of discourse that it conflicts with the accepted values of the government. I Full Text
      Hegemony is generally defined as a kind of intellectual-cultural leadership that is applied to the majority of people by a dominant group. In the meantime, the anti-hegemonic groups have a kind of discourse that it conflicts with the accepted values of the government. In order to advance goals, the dominant discourse tries to gain hegemony; and the marginal anti-hegemony groups also design some strategies to hegemonized their discourse. This study uses the content analysis method based on Antonio Gramsci's theory of hegemony in order to analyze the discourse of Malekalshara's Republic poem in which he produces both hegemony and anti-hegemony. In this poem which has two different meaning, Malekalshara apparently agrees with Reza Khan's Republican discourse, but in fact he challenges Reza Khan new political order through language strategies implicitly. The two different semantic faces of a text structure, leads to textual contradiction which is taken into the consideration in this poem. This article studies the hegemonic process of the republican system by approaching the bahar discourse and also examines Reza Khan's behaviors in cultural hegemonic processes in order to create a new political order. Our theoretical foundation for entering the channel of discussion, as stated earlier, is Antonio Gramsci's hegemony theory. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Critical reading of Dolatabadi's "Bani-Adam" collection based on Theo Van Leeuwen 's social semiotics approach
      مریم ممی زاده Bizhan zahirinav shokrollah pouralkhas امین  نواختی مقدّم
      Issue 56 , Volume 18 , Spring 2020
      The Bani-Adam collection includes six stories from "The Lives of Contemporary Humans". The actions of the characters are a reflection of the author's social and political atmosphere.In this paper, this collection of stories has been examined from the perspective of Van Full Text
      The Bani-Adam collection includes six stories from "The Lives of Contemporary Humans". The actions of the characters are a reflection of the author's social and political atmosphere.In this paper, this collection of stories has been examined from the perspective of Van Livon's principles of social semiotics to determine what tacticsDolatabadi - in the action of the actors -uses to represent the social and political harms in society.To achieve this goal, the stories were studied in a descriptive-analytical method based on the principles of Van Leeuwen 's social semiotics.The findings show that the narrative form of the story, in the imaginary and surreal atmosphere, includes social and political harms.The separation of the framing of stories in the infrastructure reveals the opposition between tradition and modernity, right and wrong, selfishness and otherness.The personal and impersonal authority in the lower layers of the stories speaks of the domination of the individual over the individual and the state over the people.The absence of female, lack of her naming and denial indicate the ignoring of women in the patriarchal society of Iran at that time. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Agency and Passivity of women in the novel "Tubaa and Manaay-e shab"
      زينب  صابرپور
      Issue 56 , Volume 18 , Spring 2020
      In the novel "Tubaa and Manaay-e shab", the confrontation of tradition and modernity in the contemporary history of Iran in relation to the status of women is in the focus.In this paper, the female characters of this novel,especially the novel’s heroine, Toubaa, have be Full Text
      In the novel "Tubaa and Manaay-e shab", the confrontation of tradition and modernity in the contemporary history of Iran in relation to the status of women is in the focus.In this paper, the female characters of this novel,especially the novel’s heroine, Toubaa, have been analyzed from the perspective of agency or passivity in relation with tradition andit has been shown that the desire for women autonomy and activism is suppressed through the processes of education and punishment.This paper is in the field of critical discourse analysis and its theoretical framework has been driven from Simone de Beauvoir’s views on femininity in her book, "The Second Sex", and the textual analysis has been done based on systemic-functional linguistics.The achievements of this research show that in this novel the contrasting pair of agency and passivity is represented in relation to the duality of tradition and modernity,and the process that Beauvoir calls "learned passivity" is institutionalized in the existence of women from childhood by the agents of tradition, in various social institutions, the most important of which is the family.Also, textual analysis indicates that this passivity has been best reflected in the language of the text. Manuscript Document
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    • Open Access Article

      1 - The Pattern of the History of Knowledge and the Resurrection of Meaning in Shahaboddin Yahya Sohrewardi's Thought
      Zahra Mahouzi  Ghobadi  Pakatchi maryam آخسسثهده
      Issue 51 , Volume 16 , Winter 2019
      The history of knowledge that is considered by Sohrewardi in Hikmat-Al-Ishraq follows a pattern that has been formulated before him in the Sufi texts. This historical pattern which is based on a hadith attributed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) foretells the future o Full Text
      The history of knowledge that is considered by Sohrewardi in Hikmat-Al-Ishraq follows a pattern that has been formulated before him in the Sufi texts. This historical pattern which is based on a hadith attributed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) foretells the future of esoteric knowledge of Islam after the Prophet. As to the fate of divine knowledge on earth, this pattern defines three stages: the era of knowledge by presence, the era of assenting meaning to the word, and the period in which metaphor is converted to symbol. Sohrewardi refers to this historical pattern and completes it by presenting a certain definition of the Divine Hakim and his role in interpreting the mysteries of the mystics. By this action, he makes a commentary on the history of knowledge. The fourth stage that Sohrewardi adds to this historical pattern is the resurrection stage of meaning to its truth, and it can be defined only by reference to the totality of Sohrewardi's intellectual system. The present article attempts to extract this historical pattern from the Sufi texts and then explains Sohrewardi's role in completing it. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Reviewing and Criticism of Research Articles on Literature in 1380 (2000) Decade
      عبدالله  راز احمد  رضی
      Issue 32 , Volume 12 , Spring 2014
      Publishing research articles in contemporary period is an appropriate chance to share research findings of different scholars and informing audiences about new scientific achievements. Although their publishing have been quantitatively increasing in recent decade, there Full Text
      Publishing research articles in contemporary period is an appropriate chance to share research findings of different scholars and informing audiences about new scientific achievements. Although their publishing have been quantitatively increasing in recent decade, there were no due attention to their assessment and criticism. This article, with a descriptive-analytic method, assesses those kinds of research articles published from 1381/2001 to 1390/2011. The research expresses advantages and disadvantages of these articles and presents a picture of the status of scientific article writing in domain of literary studies. In so doing, 345 articles were selected as examples and most important subjects under focus of authors were identified and were classified in frame of text-based, context-based, author-based, reader-based, and different articles. Moreover, patterns of cooperation between authors, and quality and quantity of used resources in these articles were presented in different charts and tables. As this issue is so important and to assess the accuracy of obtained results from main sample size, another set of 345 articles were exactly reviewed in two groups of “evidence 1” and “evidence 2”. This review shows that although articles have various subjects, apply different kinds of resources, consider some interdisciplinary approaches particularly in second half of this decade relative accuracy in composing coherent articles, specialty of some journals related to literature and considerable increase of university instructors and students cooperation in publishing articles, there are lots of deficiencies in these articles, like methodology, dominance of descriptive approach, repeated contents, lack of critical view, high frequency of education-based articles, and spread of quantitative and formal criteria and so on… Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Brevity and Deletion in Contemporary Poetry (Focusing on Nima Yushij, Ahmad Shamlu, Mahdi Akhavan Sales, Sohrab Sepehri, and Yad-al Allah Ro’yaei)
      لیلا  کردبچه
      Issue 34 , Volume 12 , Autumn 2014
      Brevity means decorating speech from additional comments and unnecessary elements, so that the most content may be stated by the lowest number of words; this method, which is also used in old literature but its special consideration is one the most significant successes Full Text
      Brevity means decorating speech from additional comments and unnecessary elements, so that the most content may be stated by the lowest number of words; this method, which is also used in old literature but its special consideration is one the most significant successes of Contemporary Poetry, changed the syntactical structures in addition to speech briefing. The focus of some contemporary poets to some of these methods is practically an approach toward old linguistic structures, but some others can be regarded as the linguistic achievements of Contemporary Literature. The article reviews the methods of achieving Brevity in two main groups of brevity and deletion methods in poems of a group of contemporary poets and compares them with deletion and brevity methods in Old Classic Literature; we aimed to show the effect of Old Classic Literature linguistic structures on some part of brevity structures and the degree of innovation in some deletion methods of Contemporary Poem, in addition to identifying these methods in Contemporary Poem. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - The Stylistics of Mahmoud Dowlatabadi’s Novel - ‘Jay-e Khali-ye Solouch’
      ميلاد  شمعي
      Issue 13 , Volume 7 , Spring 2009
      Style is a writer’s or a poet’s specific way of expressing their intended concepts in literary works. Style has been defined in various ways. Today, it refers to the methods that are used to analytical study of literature by using linguistic devices. It also studies the Full Text
      Style is a writer’s or a poet’s specific way of expressing their intended concepts in literary works. Style has been defined in various ways. Today, it refers to the methods that are used to analytical study of literature by using linguistic devices. It also studies the point of view, linguistic features, the ways of characterization and formation of the theme. The main characteristics of Mahmoud Dowlatabadi’s works, especially his novel ‘Jay-e Khali-ye Solouch’ is giving importance to the language, and the poetic structure of the text. For instance, employing the region & ethnic-specific words and expressions in this novel reveals the main feature of his archaic language adapted from the works such as Tarikh-e Beihaqi. The authors of the present article attempt to explore the stylistic features of the novel ‘Jay-e Khali-ye Solouch’, studying its linguistic and poetic structures, including lexemes, imagery, variations among the sentences, rhythm, repetition, cohesion, emphasis, and so on. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - A Critical Review and Analysis of the Narrative Technique in a Story of the Golestan of Saadi
        mostafa gorji
      Issue 38 , Volume 13 , Autumn 2015
      One of the main subjects that has been a matter of attention to the literary researchers is reviewing the narrative techniques of the poets and writers who are well known in the field of narration. Discovering the mystery of these narratives, not only can manifest th Full Text
      One of the main subjects that has been a matter of attention to the literary researchers is reviewing the narrative techniques of the poets and writers who are well known in the field of narration. Discovering the mystery of these narratives, not only can manifest the value of the previous works, but also helps today’s writers in achieving the effective narrative techniques. Discovering the deeper layers of the Golestan of Saadi demands deep thinking, and through reviewing and reinterpreting it, new literary potentials can be found. This research aims at a critical study and analysis of narrative discourse and the structure of narration in the story about a young boxer in the third chapter of Golestan. It shows how much Saadi has been successful in induction of his beliefs through finding the proper forms related to them and based on the assimilation of form and content, he creates a piece of work which has different dimensions of a literary work all together, a work which satisfies the audience through different eras. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Studying the Binary Oppositions in the Structure of Sanaie's Hadiqa
      محمد امير  عبيدي‌نيا علي  دلائي ميلان
      Issue 13 , Volume 7 , Spring 2009
      'Binary oppositions' is considered as one of the basic concepts of structural and post-structural critique, and theories of linguistics and semiotics. It is rooted in mythological and cultural beliefs of the humans. Binary oppositions can be found throughout Hadiqa. At Full Text
      'Binary oppositions' is considered as one of the basic concepts of structural and post-structural critique, and theories of linguistics and semiotics. It is rooted in mythological and cultural beliefs of the humans. Binary oppositions can be found throughout Hadiqa. At the level of its surface structure, the phrases, headings, the relations between lines and their arrangements show binary oppositions. At its deep structure, there can be found such oppositions among the successively expressed contents. At the surface structure of its narratives, the characters are of binary oppositions. Their deep structure also centers on this concept. The present article first studies and analyzes the term 'binary oppositions' concerning with different theories, and then classifies the origins of the binary oppositions in both the surface and deep structures of Hadiqa, especially considering its characterization. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - Survey of Word Functions Contributing to the Comprehension of Sacred Texts (Study Case: Segil)
      سيده زهرا  مبلغ
      Issue 10 , Volume 6 , Spring_Summer 2009
      In the domain of studies related to the Holy Quran, a survey of the intermingled words usually faces two major difficulties. First; researchers face cases where the derivation and precise meaning of the words in their prior used cases is not clearly known. Therefore, th Full Text
      In the domain of studies related to the Holy Quran, a survey of the intermingled words usually faces two major difficulties. First; researchers face cases where the derivation and precise meaning of the words in their prior used cases is not clearly known. Therefore, the comprehension of verses including such words faces ambiguities and finding the actual root of these words becomes more difficult. And second; in the explanation of such words there are generally lots of interpretative narrations leading to referential, paraphrased, and in some rare instances, literal explanations. These group of narratives and versions do not contribute to the semantics of these words due to their non-linguistic features, but also understanding them and discovering their relation to the mentioned interpretative and paraphrased instances demands knowing the precise and actual meaning of the regarding word. In this situation, if we regard these narratives alongside the verses of Quran, including the contributing words as part of the sacred texts, the actual comprehension of them within the field of linguistics becomes related to the root and the meaning of the contributing words. Such studies on the root and meaning of the contributing words can take place following two processes: 1. the correspondence of root and the meaning of the word according to the text and textual implications in the Quran. 2. The justification and expression of the words’ linguistic courses from the origin language to Arabic. This essay intends to survey one of such words as a sample. The word “segil” is one of these contributing and key words which has faced many derivations and a variety of interpretative narrations are provided for it. A precise comprehension of this word initially demands the analysis and criticism of linguistics regarding the root; especially in the two mentioned criteria. Through an analysis of these derivations, it initially becomes clear that the most suitable suggested root is a Persian root. At the same time it is revealed that in what manners the acceptance of any root and its related suitable meaning influences our understanding of the interpretative narratives and whether we accept or reject them. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - The Function of Myth in the Postcolonial Discourse of Persian Novels (Analyzing Savushun, Secrets of My Native Land, The Drowned)
      Nafiseh Moradi maryam آخسسثهده
      Issue 37 , Volume 13 , Summer 2015
      A number of contemporary Iranian writers in the pre and post Islamic Revolution period focused on explaining the western colonialism and the resistance to it as the theme in their novels. These writers tried to react to the political and cultural influences of the Weste Full Text
      A number of contemporary Iranian writers in the pre and post Islamic Revolution period focused on explaining the western colonialism and the resistance to it as the theme in their novels. These writers tried to react to the political and cultural influences of the Western colonialism and imperialism through the effective use of myths in post colonial discourse. Simin Daneshvar, Jalal Ale Ahmad, Reza Barahani, Shahrnush Parsipur, Moniru Ravanipur, and Ghulam Hussein Saʽedi are among the post colonial writers. In this inquiry, the use of myth will be analyzed in three novels, namely, Savushun (Daneshvar,1970) Secrets of My Native Land (Reza Barahani,1982) and The Drowned (Ravanipur, 1990). The results of this study show that the use of political and cultural myths created by novelists based on Iranian ancient myths has an essential role in the formation of the postcolonial discourse and representation of colonial period in Iran’s history. The writers of these three novels succeeded in depicting their abhorrence of Iran’s occupation by western colonizers, and they could well show the invaders’ face and the Iranians’ resistance. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Narrative Ghazal (Sonnet) and its Origin in the Persian Poetry
      احمدرضا  منصوری
      Issue 8 , Volume 5 , Spring_Summer 2007
      Ghazal (sonnet) is one of the major forms in the Persian Poetry. Still, the foundation, development, and its various types constantly invite and encourage the researchers towards further studies and contemplation. This research initially offers a new definition on poet Full Text
      Ghazal (sonnet) is one of the major forms in the Persian Poetry. Still, the foundation, development, and its various types constantly invite and encourage the researchers towards further studies and contemplation. This research initially offers a new definition on poetry and the narrative Ghazal. Then its various types are recognized and divided within two approaches; the formal-structuralism and the contextual-conceptual approach which are the old literary divisions and forms. The other part of the research is devoted to the origin of the Persian Ghazal and the varieties of opinions are discussed. According to the findings of this research which are supported by some of the Persian poems, the origin of the narrative Ghazal can be surveyed with two attitudes; both in lyrical and also the sonneteer's field of approach. Its different types can be divided on the basis of structure (with the three genres including the narrative, the dialogue, and description in mind), and the content (with social, historical, mystical-cognitive, elegy, trip journals, life stories and etc which are among the subdivisions of the structure of narrative).At the end, the positive points and functions of the narrative Ghazal (such as the poetry's cohesive structure, finding the contents easy to understand, making a better communication with the audience, dramatization, and gaining pleasure and joy) have been pointed to. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      10 - The Analysis of Mantegh-Al-Teyr Based on Narratology
      کاظم  دزفولیان foad Moloudi
      Issue 20 , Volume 9 , Spring 2011
      This article is an analysis of the narrative aspect of Attar’s Mantiq-Al-Tayr (Speech of Birds), based on the views of two structuralist narratologists- Gremas and Genette. On the one hand, using Gremas’s interpretative actanitial model, and basic structure of binary op Full Text
      This article is an analysis of the narrative aspect of Attar’s Mantiq-Al-Tayr (Speech of Birds), based on the views of two structuralist narratologists- Gremas and Genette. On the one hand, using Gremas’s interpretative actanitial model, and basic structure of binary oppositions in this model, we will study the process of creating meaning and development of narrative units in Mantiq-Al-Tayr, as well as the role of binary oppositions, such as, meaning/ form, body/ soul, and the heaven/ the earth in the formation of the actantial roles. On the other hand, based on Genet’s theory, the three narrative levels of the story- narrative, narratology and linking features of these levels- will be presented in Mantiq-Al-Tayr in order to show to what extent this work enjoys narrative structure. Manuscript Document
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