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    Pazhūhish-i Źabān va Adabiyyāt-i Farsī

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    • Open Access Article

      1 - Contemplation on the Concept of “Situation Requirement” and its Extension in Ma’ani
      Ghqsem Bostani Kamele Boezar
      Issue 54 , Volume 17 , Autumn 2019
      This article will discuss the concept of “situation requirement” in Ma’ani, and explain its implications for classical and modern rhetoricians by analyzing the extent and limitations of the concept of situation in their ideas. This study aims to create a dialogue betwee Full Text
      This article will discuss the concept of “situation requirement” in Ma’ani, and explain its implications for classical and modern rhetoricians by analyzing the extent and limitations of the concept of situation in their ideas. This study aims to create a dialogue between linguistic thoughts of modern and classical rhetoricians by considering the metatextual elements in regard to the concept of situation. In doing so, this research asks: what are the elements of “situation” in Ma’ani? Is it possible to compare “situation requirement” to the pragmatic approaches in linguistics? The method of this research is descriptive-analytical and after expressing the views of the classical and modern rhetoricians about “situation requirement", it is concluded that the difference in their approach to the metatextual elements of speech is due to two reasons: considering the situation before speech and the rhetorical and aesthetic functions of situation in Ma’ani. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Representation of Religious Characteristics of the Islamic Revolution Discourse in Top War Novels
      hashem sadeghi manouchehr akbari
      Issue 54 , Volume 17 , Autumn 2019
      This study has aimed to examine the religious characteristics represented in Persian war novels from the perspective of Critical Discourse Analysi. To do so, the religious identity of warriors in their conduct with prisoners of war, discursive presuppositions about such Full Text
      This study has aimed to examine the religious characteristics represented in Persian war novels from the perspective of Critical Discourse Analysi. To do so, the religious identity of warriors in their conduct with prisoners of war, discursive presuppositions about such issues as sacrifice and martyrdom, and the attitude of warriors towards such issues as represented in Persian prominent war novels have been analyzed. The results of the study revealed that the interdiscursivity of Persian war novels is composed of religious teachings and defense strategies. Furthermore, it was found that the Islamic Revolution discourse has articulated a religious semantic system based on Islamic ideological signifiers such as Jihad, sacrifice, martyrdom etc., and that it has consolidated the meaning of discursive signifiers by modeling the ‘eventof Ashoura’ , reference to the Quran, and utilising positive comments about martyrdom and consecration of that, thus facilitating the hegemonization of this discourse. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Analysis of the Reflection of Predictive Thoughts in Iranian legends
      aliakbar ekhve asieh zabihnia omran fateme kouppa Ali pedram mirzaei
      Issue 54 , Volume 17 , Autumn 2019
      Forecast or Apocalypse is discovery, intuition and telling about future information, regardless of whether it will occur or not. Often, apocalyptic thoughts have emerged in Iranian myths and in popular beliefs because of the humans concern for the future and disposing o Full Text
      Forecast or Apocalypse is discovery, intuition and telling about future information, regardless of whether it will occur or not. Often, apocalyptic thoughts have emerged in Iranian myths and in popular beliefs because of the humans concern for the future and disposing of anxiety. The main motive for the emergence of these kinds of revelations, is the psychological pressures on humans; so that these thoughts play a role in promoting the future hope. In Iranian legends, various apocalyptic roles and numerous functions have been created due to the existence of the legend itself; most of these concepts are inextricably linked with the material and natural features of legend. The compatibility of natural states with their roles in popular belief is the main reason for these revelations.This research in a descriptive-analytical way, tries to answer the question: what is the most significant part of the revelations in Iranian legends? This study tries to answer the question in a descriptive - analytical way: what is the most important of all types of Revelation in Iranian legends? According to the research achievements, the most kind of revelation in iranian legends is related to “inspiration” and its least, the use of sleep language and dream as the most important manifestation of its expression. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Critical Discourse Analysis of Samad Behrangi’s “Mahi Siah Kouchoulou”Tale
      alireza moghadam محمدحسن  کریمی رحمان  صحراگرد شهرزاد  شاه‌سنی
      Issue 54 , Volume 17 , Autumn 2019
      “Samad Behrangi” is a critic of the children's literature as well as the education system before him and tries to use the capabilities of children's literature to achieve his ideological goals.This study seeks to show how children's fiction, influenced by existing disco Full Text
      “Samad Behrangi” is a critic of the children's literature as well as the education system before him and tries to use the capabilities of children's literature to achieve his ideological goals.This study seeks to show how children's fiction, influenced by existing discourses and the social structure that produces these discourses, offers a different conception of education and how discourses reflect the concepts of education.This research attempts to show how children's fictional literature influenced by the existing discourses and the social structure producing these discourses, affords a different conception of education and how discourses play a role in reflecting the concepts of education. In this study, an attempt was made to review, analyze and explain the story of Behrangi’s “Mahi Siah Kouchoulou”Tale from Norman Fairclough’s approach. Our goal is to show what discourse or discourses the text is referring to by accurately analyzing the story and what relationship does this text establish between education and the social and political dimensions? Situational context reinforces the assumption of the author's ideological point of view. The result of this research, based on the analysis of critical discourse, is that Behrangi in this story has described and criticized four common contemporary discourses, namely authoritarianism, nationalism, religion and the Marxist left. The fourth discourse is Behrangi’s dominant and dependence discourse. In this work, Behrangi tries to make his discourse superior to other discourses by choosing specific words, characters, places, and metaphorical aspects.The themes of education in this story are often influenced by the left discourse and other common confrontational discourses and are formed in opposition to the discourse of the system of domination (the discourse of tyranny). Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Analysis of Iranian Family Evolutions in a selection of Persian Novels Based on Conflict theory
      حمید رضایی Ebrahim zaheri
      Issue 54 , Volume 17 , Autumn 2019
      Changes and evolutions in society, especially the family, are studied and explained based on various theories, including the theory of conflict. According to this theory, there are different attitudes and interests in a society and also different groups, that by power, Full Text
      Changes and evolutions in society, especially the family, are studied and explained based on various theories, including the theory of conflict. According to this theory, there are different attitudes and interests in a society and also different groups, that by power, order is created between them and social stability is provided; but ultimately the unequal distribution of resources will lead to struggle and conflict between them. The present research aims to interpret and analyze the evolutions of Iranian family in novels « Talar-e Ayeneh (The Mirror Hall)» by Amir Hossein Cheheltan, «Samphony-e Mordegan (Symphony of the Dead)» by Abbas Maroufi, and «Nimey-e Ghayeb (The Absent Half)» by Hossein Sanapour based on the conflict theory and using descriptive-analytical method. This study seeks to answer the following questions: What factors have caused conflict in Iranian families during different periods? What were the benefits of the conflict? What resources have the dominated groups used to liberate themselves? And what changes has this conflict caused in the family? The results show that first conflict and tension are created in the upper families of the society,and then the middle families and afterwards lower families.; These contradictions are due to the familiarity with modernity, and in the beginning, the character of the father played the role of agency in this field. But in the following, other members of the family, especially the son character, and then, the daughter and wife have protested against the existing order. The father benefits from the existing order and other family members are dominated by him. He has resourses such as power and wealth at his disposal to continue his dominance and the subordinated group have used resources and capitals such as socio-economic and cultural capitals to emancipate themselves. The father character seeks to maintain his power and authority in the family, and other members of the family seek individuality and independence. The conflict resulting from this situation has led to changes and evulations in the values and norms of the family, especially with regard to marriage, education, and occupation, and a new order has been formed with the collapse of the previous order of the family. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Feminine Roles in the Novels “Pirzad” and “Wolf” Based on Jung's Archetypal Theory
      Maryam Ramin Nia Mona Ali madadi Maryam Bay
      Issue 54 , Volume 17 , Autumn 2019
      The critique of archetype, based on the theories of Carl Gustav Jung, explores archetypes in literary texts and explains their roles, functions, and transformations.Among the archetypes that Jung enumerates in his works, we can mention four female archetypes that appear Full Text
      The critique of archetype, based on the theories of Carl Gustav Jung, explores archetypes in literary texts and explains their roles, functions, and transformations.Among the archetypes that Jung enumerates in his works, we can mention four female archetypes that appear as feminine roles in their lives. These four roles are: the role of mother, wife, Madonna and the role of Amazon. These roles appear in relation to others, the environment and the culture that governs the living environment in women's behaviors. By examining the literary works of women, it is possible to see how and to what extent these roles are present. By studying the literary works of women, one can see how these roles are present. Western and Iranian female writers drawers these roles in different ways.In the present study, we, comparatively, analyze these feminine roles in the novels “Cheraghha Ra Man Khamoosh Mikonam (I turn off the lights)” and “Aadat Mikonim (We get used to)” by Zoya Pirzad and “Mrs. Dalloway” and “To the Lighthouse” by Virginia Woolf. The conclusion shows that the feminine roles based on Jung archetypes are not used in the same way in Pirzad and Wolf. As a Western novelist, Wolff deals with the roles of mother and wife in a more balanced way. She has applied much more Madonna's role for “The Lighthouse” but Amazon role in Mrs. Dalioway has drawn powerfully. Wolf's feminist approach has not been ineffective in addressing these issues. In Pirzad's works we see the role of the mother in a sacrificial approach and the role of wife in the conservative approach. She has a special place for the role of Madonna and has gradually incorporated the role of Amazon in the framework of traditional Eastern culture in a step-by-step and faint way in her works. Manuscript Document
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    • Open Access Article

      1 - The Pattern of the History of Knowledge and the Resurrection of Meaning in Shahaboddin Yahya Sohrewardi's Thought
      Zahra Mahouzi  Ghobadi  Pakatchi maryam آخسسثهده
      Issue 51 , Volume 16 , Winter 2019
      The history of knowledge that is considered by Sohrewardi in Hikmat-Al-Ishraq follows a pattern that has been formulated before him in the Sufi texts. This historical pattern which is based on a hadith attributed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) foretells the future o Full Text
      The history of knowledge that is considered by Sohrewardi in Hikmat-Al-Ishraq follows a pattern that has been formulated before him in the Sufi texts. This historical pattern which is based on a hadith attributed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) foretells the future of esoteric knowledge of Islam after the Prophet. As to the fate of divine knowledge on earth, this pattern defines three stages: the era of knowledge by presence, the era of assenting meaning to the word, and the period in which metaphor is converted to symbol. Sohrewardi refers to this historical pattern and completes it by presenting a certain definition of the Divine Hakim and his role in interpreting the mysteries of the mystics. By this action, he makes a commentary on the history of knowledge. The fourth stage that Sohrewardi adds to this historical pattern is the resurrection stage of meaning to its truth, and it can be defined only by reference to the totality of Sohrewardi's intellectual system. The present article attempts to extract this historical pattern from the Sufi texts and then explains Sohrewardi's role in completing it. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Reviewing and Criticism of Research Articles on Literature in 1380 (2000) Decade
      عبدالله  راز احمد  رضی
      Issue 32 , Volume 12 , Spring 2014
      Publishing research articles in contemporary period is an appropriate chance to share research findings of different scholars and informing audiences about new scientific achievements. Although their publishing have been quantitatively increasing in recent decade, there Full Text
      Publishing research articles in contemporary period is an appropriate chance to share research findings of different scholars and informing audiences about new scientific achievements. Although their publishing have been quantitatively increasing in recent decade, there were no due attention to their assessment and criticism. This article, with a descriptive-analytic method, assesses those kinds of research articles published from 1381/2001 to 1390/2011. The research expresses advantages and disadvantages of these articles and presents a picture of the status of scientific article writing in domain of literary studies. In so doing, 345 articles were selected as examples and most important subjects under focus of authors were identified and were classified in frame of text-based, context-based, author-based, reader-based, and different articles. Moreover, patterns of cooperation between authors, and quality and quantity of used resources in these articles were presented in different charts and tables. As this issue is so important and to assess the accuracy of obtained results from main sample size, another set of 345 articles were exactly reviewed in two groups of “evidence 1” and “evidence 2”. This review shows that although articles have various subjects, apply different kinds of resources, consider some interdisciplinary approaches particularly in second half of this decade relative accuracy in composing coherent articles, specialty of some journals related to literature and considerable increase of university instructors and students cooperation in publishing articles, there are lots of deficiencies in these articles, like methodology, dominance of descriptive approach, repeated contents, lack of critical view, high frequency of education-based articles, and spread of quantitative and formal criteria and so on… Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Brevity and Deletion in Contemporary Poetry (Focusing on Nima Yushij, Ahmad Shamlu, Mahdi Akhavan Sales, Sohrab Sepehri, and Yad-al Allah Ro’yaei)
      لیلا  کردبچه
      Issue 34 , Volume 12 , Autumn 2014
      Brevity means decorating speech from additional comments and unnecessary elements, so that the most content may be stated by the lowest number of words; this method, which is also used in old literature but its special consideration is one the most significant successes Full Text
      Brevity means decorating speech from additional comments and unnecessary elements, so that the most content may be stated by the lowest number of words; this method, which is also used in old literature but its special consideration is one the most significant successes of Contemporary Poetry, changed the syntactical structures in addition to speech briefing. The focus of some contemporary poets to some of these methods is practically an approach toward old linguistic structures, but some others can be regarded as the linguistic achievements of Contemporary Literature. The article reviews the methods of achieving Brevity in two main groups of brevity and deletion methods in poems of a group of contemporary poets and compares them with deletion and brevity methods in Old Classic Literature; we aimed to show the effect of Old Classic Literature linguistic structures on some part of brevity structures and the degree of innovation in some deletion methods of Contemporary Poem, in addition to identifying these methods in Contemporary Poem. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      4 - The Stylistics of Mahmoud Dowlatabadi’s Novel - ‘Jay-e Khali-ye Solouch’
      ميلاد  شمعي
      Issue 13 , Volume 7 , Spring 2009
      Style is a writer’s or a poet’s specific way of expressing their intended concepts in literary works. Style has been defined in various ways. Today, it refers to the methods that are used to analytical study of literature by using linguistic devices. It also studies the Full Text
      Style is a writer’s or a poet’s specific way of expressing their intended concepts in literary works. Style has been defined in various ways. Today, it refers to the methods that are used to analytical study of literature by using linguistic devices. It also studies the point of view, linguistic features, the ways of characterization and formation of the theme. The main characteristics of Mahmoud Dowlatabadi’s works, especially his novel ‘Jay-e Khali-ye Solouch’ is giving importance to the language, and the poetic structure of the text. For instance, employing the region & ethnic-specific words and expressions in this novel reveals the main feature of his archaic language adapted from the works such as Tarikh-e Beihaqi. The authors of the present article attempt to explore the stylistic features of the novel ‘Jay-e Khali-ye Solouch’, studying its linguistic and poetic structures, including lexemes, imagery, variations among the sentences, rhythm, repetition, cohesion, emphasis, and so on. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Studying the Binary Oppositions in the Structure of Sanaie's Hadiqa
      محمد امير  عبيدي‌نيا علي  دلائي ميلان
      Issue 13 , Volume 7 , Spring 2009
      'Binary oppositions' is considered as one of the basic concepts of structural and post-structural critique, and theories of linguistics and semiotics. It is rooted in mythological and cultural beliefs of the humans. Binary oppositions can be found throughout Hadiqa. At Full Text
      'Binary oppositions' is considered as one of the basic concepts of structural and post-structural critique, and theories of linguistics and semiotics. It is rooted in mythological and cultural beliefs of the humans. Binary oppositions can be found throughout Hadiqa. At the level of its surface structure, the phrases, headings, the relations between lines and their arrangements show binary oppositions. At its deep structure, there can be found such oppositions among the successively expressed contents. At the surface structure of its narratives, the characters are of binary oppositions. Their deep structure also centers on this concept. The present article first studies and analyzes the term 'binary oppositions' concerning with different theories, and then classifies the origins of the binary oppositions in both the surface and deep structures of Hadiqa, especially considering its characterization. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Survey of Word Functions Contributing to the Comprehension of Sacred Texts (Study Case: Segil)
      سيده زهرا  مبلغ
      Issue 10 , Volume 6 , Spring_Summer 2009
      In the domain of studies related to the Holy Quran, a survey of the intermingled words usually faces two major difficulties. First; researchers face cases where the derivation and precise meaning of the words in their prior used cases is not clearly known. Therefore, th Full Text
      In the domain of studies related to the Holy Quran, a survey of the intermingled words usually faces two major difficulties. First; researchers face cases where the derivation and precise meaning of the words in their prior used cases is not clearly known. Therefore, the comprehension of verses including such words faces ambiguities and finding the actual root of these words becomes more difficult. And second; in the explanation of such words there are generally lots of interpretative narrations leading to referential, paraphrased, and in some rare instances, literal explanations. These group of narratives and versions do not contribute to the semantics of these words due to their non-linguistic features, but also understanding them and discovering their relation to the mentioned interpretative and paraphrased instances demands knowing the precise and actual meaning of the regarding word. In this situation, if we regard these narratives alongside the verses of Quran, including the contributing words as part of the sacred texts, the actual comprehension of them within the field of linguistics becomes related to the root and the meaning of the contributing words. Such studies on the root and meaning of the contributing words can take place following two processes: 1. the correspondence of root and the meaning of the word according to the text and textual implications in the Quran. 2. The justification and expression of the words’ linguistic courses from the origin language to Arabic. This essay intends to survey one of such words as a sample. The word “segil” is one of these contributing and key words which has faced many derivations and a variety of interpretative narrations are provided for it. A precise comprehension of this word initially demands the analysis and criticism of linguistics regarding the root; especially in the two mentioned criteria. Through an analysis of these derivations, it initially becomes clear that the most suitable suggested root is a Persian root. At the same time it is revealed that in what manners the acceptance of any root and its related suitable meaning influences our understanding of the interpretative narratives and whether we accept or reject them. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      7 - The Function of Myth in the Postcolonial Discourse of Persian Novels (Analyzing Savushun, Secrets of My Native Land, The Drowned)
      Nafiseh Moradi maryam آخسسثهده
      Issue 37 , Volume 13 , Summer 2015
      A number of contemporary Iranian writers in the pre and post Islamic Revolution period focused on explaining the western colonialism and the resistance to it as the theme in their novels. These writers tried to react to the political and cultural influences of the Weste Full Text
      A number of contemporary Iranian writers in the pre and post Islamic Revolution period focused on explaining the western colonialism and the resistance to it as the theme in their novels. These writers tried to react to the political and cultural influences of the Western colonialism and imperialism through the effective use of myths in post colonial discourse. Simin Daneshvar, Jalal Ale Ahmad, Reza Barahani, Shahrnush Parsipur, Moniru Ravanipur, and Ghulam Hussein Saʽedi are among the post colonial writers. In this inquiry, the use of myth will be analyzed in three novels, namely, Savushun (Daneshvar,1970) Secrets of My Native Land (Reza Barahani,1982) and The Drowned (Ravanipur, 1990). The results of this study show that the use of political and cultural myths created by novelists based on Iranian ancient myths has an essential role in the formation of the postcolonial discourse and representation of colonial period in Iran’s history. The writers of these three novels succeeded in depicting their abhorrence of Iran’s occupation by western colonizers, and they could well show the invaders’ face and the Iranians’ resistance. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Content Analysis of 20 Years Rewriting of Revision of Masnavi’ Stories for Kids and Teenage (1990-2010)
      Issue 28 , Volume 11 , Spring 2013
      The purpose of the current research is to study rewritten stories of Masnavi for kids and juveniles, from Masnavi during 1990 to 2010 and identifying their problems based on rewriting principles. The applied method in this research is content analysis. Statistical sam Full Text
      The purpose of the current research is to study rewritten stories of Masnavi for kids and juveniles, from Masnavi during 1990 to 2010 and identifying their problems based on rewriting principles. The applied method in this research is content analysis. Statistical sample contains 63 stories from Masnavi which are all selected by systematic accidental sampling from 160 stories of Masnavi. To collect research data, I used a list that I myself have created it. The most significant problems of the rewritten stories, according to content's quality, structure and delivery, language, picture and method of presentation viewpoint, can categorized as follow: Not encouraging reader to know Masnavi, not improving curiosity to follow its stories, not determining the situation of revised rewritten story in Masnavi, not attending to main themes of stories in Masnavi context, not using Masnavi poems and verses in these stories, not observing grammatical, written, orthographic principles and laws, and important principles of artless writing, also applying difficult words and terms of old texts without any explanation and description, using uninteresting pictures, weakness in designing and using artless pictures, not having a special page for introducing Masnavi, not having a glossary for necessary and hard words and finally weak book wrapper and typography. In some books are among the most significant problems of revision from content's quality, structure and delivery, language, picture and method of presentation viewpoint. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Aesthetic Functions of Predisposition of Verb In Sa’di’s Sonnets
      سوسن  جبری  
      Issue 18 , Volume 8 , Autumn 2010
      Syntactic structures somehow reflect our perception of outer and inner facts, and express the relations established by our minds among the things and concepts in terms of linguistic forms. Such a process is unconscious. Poets, however, employ the syntactic patterns to s Full Text
      Syntactic structures somehow reflect our perception of outer and inner facts, and express the relations established by our minds among the things and concepts in terms of linguistic forms. Such a process is unconscious. Poets, however, employ the syntactic patterns to some degree consciously so that they would effectively express their thoughts and emotions. Predisposition of verb is a defamiliarized syntactic pattern whose functions here have been studied in Sa’di’s sonnets. Structure functions of this pattern are to create forceful musical effects, keeping sentences length short, extendibility, completing the meaning, and structural cohesion. Predisposition of verb has also semantic functions including meaning extension, emphasis, magnification, minimization, generalizing palace and time, brevity, interpretability, suspension and expectance, prominence of descriptions, movement and dynamism, emotional incitement, creating images and pleasure, semantic cohesion. Thus, predisposition of verb is considered as one of the reasons for the beauty of Sa’di’s sonnets which along his skillful use of other linguistic techniques make readers share in poet’s thought and emotions. Manuscript Document

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Criticism and Analysis of Massnavi's Allegorical Narratives on Prophet Mohammad's Character
      فاطمه  كوپا
      Issue 9 , Volume 5 , Autumn_Winter 2007
      The literary language is one of the linguistic genres that speaks of a specific experimental and conceptual domain. The reason is that one can merely discover the literary language of objects within the domain of conceptual texts, and within the allusive and symbolic re Full Text
      The literary language is one of the linguistic genres that speaks of a specific experimental and conceptual domain. The reason is that one can merely discover the literary language of objects within the domain of conceptual texts, and within the allusive and symbolic relations. What is in fact considered as the pleasant and nice part of the literary word roots from these deep and internal layers of the conceptual and passionate parts of the work as reflected in the language. One of the means and functional devices of the literary word that possesses a vast potential in the symbolical expression of pictures and concepts is "allegory” which has found a considerable power in Rumi's Massnavi Ma'anavi. Apparently, the structure of the stories in Massnavi shows that the speaker has had the concealed and inner concepts of the words in mind. The order of the elements, the incidents and the phrases within the allegorical narratives in Massnavi is in a manner through which the audience will be led towards the concealed and implied concepts in the depth of the narratives; due to the coordination between the artist and the art-seeker. This research intends to respond to two questions; 1. What is the precise concept of allegory and allegorical literature? Moreover, what are its practical functioning fields and areas? 2. In what method has Rumi utilized the allegorical potential of the narratives related to Prophet Mohammad? The criteria for choosing and selecting the narratives have been the prominence of the narratives in enjoying allegory. Manuscript Document
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