• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Investigating the Dramatic Aspects of Rostam and Sohrab Story in Shahnameh Based on Aristotle’s Views on Drama
        داود  حاتمي
        Among the mythological, heroic, and historic stories in Shahnameh, the heroic ones are of better ground and more fascinating perspectives for study than the others. Isolation of heroic function from the functions of mythological-king-hero character and its appearance in Full Text
        Among the mythological, heroic, and historic stories in Shahnameh, the heroic ones are of better ground and more fascinating perspectives for study than the others. Isolation of heroic function from the functions of mythological-king-hero character and its appearance in a particular character named hero, with his own actions and feelings that are increasingly similar to a common human behaviors and emotions on one hand, and Ferdowsi’s (the poet’s) tendency to investigate and interpret the hero’s internal motivations facing epical events, on the other hand, have made the characterization aspect of the work deeper and more elaborate, and also promoted the structure of the story from a mere heroic narration to a dramatic structure with its embodiment potential, that latter effect is more prominent in some of the heroic stories. The study of dramatic aspects of these stories, in addition to understanding the dramatic potentials, helps their typology be more methodological and exact. This article, selecting one of the most well known heroic stories of Shahnameh, i.e. Rustam and Sohrab story, and through an introductory emphasis on the originality of its Iranian version, compared with the non-Iranian ones, attempts to investigate its dramatic aspects based upon Aristotle’s Poetica, as the most ancient and, at the same time, credible thesis on recognizing drama and its mechanism in the context of the classic verse and prose works; and presents its own results. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Shahnameh in the Arab World
        قاسم  مختاري محمود  شهبازي مژگان  نصيري
        Firdowsi is the famous Iranian poet who, by composing the epic of Shahnameh (The Book of Kings), secured a prominent place for himself in Persian literature. The first Arabic translation of the book was made in the 7th century A.H. by Fath Ibin Ali Bondari Isfahani by t Full Text
        Firdowsi is the famous Iranian poet who, by composing the epic of Shahnameh (The Book of Kings), secured a prominent place for himself in Persian literature. The first Arabic translation of the book was made in the 7th century A.H. by Fath Ibin Ali Bondari Isfahani by the decree of Malek Mo’adham Issa Ayoubi. However, the translation being in prose and consequently ignoring almost all the aesthetic aspects of the book, had literally no influence on Arab writers. In the current century and thanks to the indefatigable attempts of some Arab writers and critics, such as the prominent Arab scholar Abd-al-Vahhab Izam who also knows Persian very well and has conducted many researches on Shahnameh in Arabic, Shahnameh has found its place among Arab authors and poets who confessed the greatness of Ferdowsi’s unique work. However, the stories of Shahnameh did not reflected that much in Arabic poetry. There may be three reasons for this fact: tendencies to western literature, prose translations of shahnameh where its poetic features have been lost, and the lack of an epic heritage in Arabic literature. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Deviation from the Norms in Nezami’s Khamseh
        زينب  نوروزي
        Nezami Ganjavi employs a complex symbolic language in his poetry. His frequent play with words is an attempt to emotionally affect the readers. The present paper is a study of the language Nezami used in his poetry, based on the formalist theory of the deviation from t Full Text
        Nezami Ganjavi employs a complex symbolic language in his poetry. His frequent play with words is an attempt to emotionally affect the readers. The present paper is a study of the language Nezami used in his poetry, based on the formalist theory of the deviation from the norms. A prominent aspect of deviation from norms is to use words for meanings other than their usual ones; this has frequently been used in Khamseh. Studying such deviations helps to discover the artistic and poetic techniques of Nazami’s literary creation. Nezami has created his poems by deviation from standard language, and defamiliarization. Notably, the later should be studied regarding the linguistic norms and the time when they were in use. In the construction of Nezami’s poems, deviations of musical, lexical, syntactic, and semantic types play a crucial role. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - The Theory of Consciousness and Eternity of Being in Mowlavi’s Gnostic Point of View
        حسين  نوين
        On the basis of an intuitive knowledge, as well as by reference to Koran verses and his sacred knowledge, Mowlavi regards all particles of the universe as conscious, living, and dynamic, linked in an innately coordinated manner with the Conscious Totality governing all Full Text
        On the basis of an intuitive knowledge, as well as by reference to Koran verses and his sacred knowledge, Mowlavi regards all particles of the universe as conscious, living, and dynamic, linked in an innately coordinated manner with the Conscious Totality governing all the being. Within this system, such a connection would be completed when the elements of existence, including human beings, detach themselves from their material aspects and promote their spiritual dimensions. This is what is called the law of entropy and negentropy in physics. Mowlavi's mystic unity of existence confirms this doctrine. He, like Einstein, believes in two kinds of lights, sense and regent; he considers the human death as a process of changing the light of sense into the regent light, and into eternity. All phenomena are moving toward the wisdom governing the existence in a predetermined total coordination with universe of existence. Human beings’ connection with the Totality governing the universe, and reaching eternal illumination is possible in the light of intuition attained through invocation, meditation and purification of the soul. Manuscript Document
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        5 - Criticism of the Research Approaches to the History of Iranian Play "Ta'ziyeh"
        على  شيخ‌‏مهدى مصطفی  مختاباد
        This article seeks to explain that any fundamental study about Ta'ziyeh inevitably leads to a chronological investigation of theatrical play in Iran. Therefore, this article, has reviewed the studies conducted by western and Iranian scholars in this field and the eight Full Text
        This article seeks to explain that any fundamental study about Ta'ziyeh inevitably leads to a chronological investigation of theatrical play in Iran. Therefore, this article, has reviewed the studies conducted by western and Iranian scholars in this field and the eight approaches, using documents and the library references, and employing a historical-expository methodology. Finally, it draws the conclusion that these scholars’ persistence in finding a single origin for the Iranian theatrical play of Ta'ziyeh has led them to ignore its extensive connection with other possible original sources; hence, there remains a lot to be explored about the theatre in Iran. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Analysis of the Language in Farokhi Yazdi’s Poems Based on the Critical Aesthetic Theory (with Reference to a Sonnet and Some Quatrain of his)
        حسین  حسن‌پور آلاشتی رضا  عباسی
        Frankfort school is a title for a theoretical and thinking heritage of some prominent German intellectuals and their special social theory from which the critical aesthetic theory emerged. Unlike some schools of literary criticism and particularly sociological criticism Full Text
        Frankfort school is a title for a theoretical and thinking heritage of some prominent German intellectuals and their special social theory from which the critical aesthetic theory emerged. Unlike some schools of literary criticism and particularly sociological criticism that diminish originality of literary works and their creators, and consider them as the products of external factors, it attempts to give literary works an autonomous status. The thinkers of critical theory introduced criteria to evaluate art, especially literature. The present article, first reviews the basic concepts of critical aesthetic theory, such as criticism of art, revolutionary art, ideological nature of art, autonomy of art. Studying Farokhi’s poems reveals the poet’s critical views expressed through linguistic elements of employing particular expressions, heroic language, semantic deviations, using slangs and foreign words. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - The Study of the Evolution of Maternal Contents in the Poetry of Some Poetesses from the Period of Constitutionalism up to Present
        مریم  عاملی رضایی
        Women’s Poetry has always been the field of expressing their emotions. Maternity is the purist of the feminine emotions reflected in the poems of both men and women. Extending feminine poetry in contemporary period, maternal images have also been depicted in it by the p Full Text
        Women’s Poetry has always been the field of expressing their emotions. Maternity is the purist of the feminine emotions reflected in the poems of both men and women. Extending feminine poetry in contemporary period, maternal images have also been depicted in it by the poetesses themselves. The objective of the present article is to study maternal contents in the poems of Iranian famous poetesses from the period of Constitutionalism to the present, say, Jale Qaem Maqami, Parvin E’tesami, Foruq Farokhzad, Simin Behbahani. It focuses on the fact that emerging modern thinking and individualism introduced the content of separation between mother and child to the feminine poetry. It also studies the ascent and descent of expressing maternal contents in their poetry. Although the nature of maternal emotion is the same, it worth mentioning that it can be affected by factors like the life, beliefs and world view of a poetess herself, the social changes of her time that make some contents more prevailing than the other ones. Findings of the present research shows that the main contents of this type are expressing mother and child emotions, mother and child talk, training child by mother, mothers view on the world and universe. Studying maternal contents in the poetry of every poetess, we will follow its changes regarding their time. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        8 - «Stream of Consciousness» in the Stories by «Mostafa Mastoor»
        آرش  مشفقی ناصر  علیزاده خیّاط
        As the colossal movement of »modernism« in the 20th century bloomed, it dominated all aspects of human life. Literature too, faced a metamorphosis in the form of novel, and emergence of new ways in narration. The term »Stream of Consciousness« was first used by the Amer Full Text
        As the colossal movement of »modernism« in the 20th century bloomed, it dominated all aspects of human life. Literature too, faced a metamorphosis in the form of novel, and emergence of new ways in narration. The term »Stream of Consciousness« was first used by the American psychologist »William James« in psychology, then entered the field of literature and became one of the modern narrative techniques. The present study has attempted to, first, give a brief description of the main features of the ‘stream of consciousness’, and then, investigate those features in some of the stories written by the contemporary modern Iranian writer, ‘Mostafa Mastoor’. In other words, the present paper tries to find the answer to the question of the possibility of classifying some of Mastoor’s stories under the title of “stream of consciousness”, as some critics believes. It should be noted that the term ‘stream of consciousness’ is used for the stories having all or most of the features known for it. Therefore, the selected works of Mastoor's as samples do not mean that they are fully written under the rules of the ‘stream of consciousness’, rather, they aim at probing the strength of its effects in these works. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        9 - A Study of Humanities Textbooks within the Framework of Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar from the Viewpoint of Interpersonal Metafunction
        مریم  اعلايی فردوس  آقاگلزاده محمد  دبیرمقدم ارسلان  گلفام
        In his systemic-functional grammar, Halliday believes that language is primarily aimed at conveying meaning; so speakers form the text in order to communicate what they mean. This implies that in interaction, exchanging of sounds, words or sentences is not intended; wha Full Text
        In his systemic-functional grammar, Halliday believes that language is primarily aimed at conveying meaning; so speakers form the text in order to communicate what they mean. This implies that in interaction, exchanging of sounds, words or sentences is not intended; what matters is the exchange of meaning. The present article investigates the humanities textbooks published by SAMT within the framework of Halliday’s functional grammar, particularly. The method adopted here is descriptive–analytic. The result obtained from the interpersonal perspective suggests that writers, making frequent use of positive predicative sentences, merely present and bombard information in the form of monologues; the relationship between the reader and the writer consequently breaks off, and writers fails to achieve their end, to wit, communicating concepts to the reader, and reach a dead-end point. Manuscript Document