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    Pazhūhish-i Źabān va Adabiyyāt-i Farsī


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    • Open Access Article

      1 - A comparative analysis poetry and painting in Safavid era Based on theory of Henry Remak
      Morad Esmaeeli
      Issue 64 , Vol. 20 , Spring 2022
      As an interdisciplinary study in comparative literature, this paper is to address the linkage between literature and painting in Safavid era. Integrating Remak’s theory of Comparative Literature and Art, this study is to disclose how the same concept can be represented More
      As an interdisciplinary study in comparative literature, this paper is to address the linkage between literature and painting in Safavid era. Integrating Remak’s theory of Comparative Literature and Art, this study is to disclose how the same concept can be represented in different forms in poetry and painting in that era. Findings show that poetries and paintings in the investigated era are not in the perpetuation of previously dominant styles. Rather, poetry and painting in this era has their own special paradigm. In fact, Safavid poets and painters enjoy a set of common principles which cannot be compared with the previous eras. Furthermore, secularism is one main presupposition which make the building blocks of thought and art in the era. Indeed, the poets and painters in the era have created their own work in various forms such as: realism, partialism (micro reading), entertainment-related reading, using surrounding elements, etc. which all are the main components of secularism. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - The Configuration of Time and Narration in Asfar-e-kateban by Aboutorab Khosravi
      parvin salajegheh
      Issue 64 , Vol. 20 , Spring 2022
      Thinking about the issue of "time" and trying to make tangible the type of its passage on man, has always been the attention of scientists of various sciences, especially, thinkers in the field of humanities. However, showing the passage of this concept, especially in t More
      Thinking about the issue of "time" and trying to make tangible the type of its passage on man, has always been the attention of scientists of various sciences, especially, thinkers in the field of humanities. However, showing the passage of this concept, especially in the field of understanding it in the cycle of seasons and the transition of life from youth to old age, gives a sort of understanding of the presence and impact of time on phenomena, but more than anything, its traces can be found in works of art and literature, especially in stories and novels, which depict events with the help of narration. In this regard, this article is an attempt to investigate, analyze and track the way time works in the novel "Asfar Kateban", written by Abu Torab Khosravi. By using special narrative techniques and using the discourse of history, narrative and literature, this work has succeeded in displaying a special type of structuring of time in a kind of transhistorical discourse. This article is done in two parts. The theoretical part was written based on the theories of time from scientists in this field, and the second part has analyzed the type of function of time in this novel, considering the theoretical issues. The results obtained in this study indicate the type of function of time, history and narrative in a transhistorical discourse in this novel. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Investigating the origins and ways to overcome dignity anxiety In the novel "Ketab-e Kham (Book of Bending)" by Alireza Seif al-Dini
      ayoob moradi Ali  Jamshidi
      Issue 64 , Vol. 20 , Spring 2022
      The need to be seen, affirmed, and recognized as successful human are emerging needs that have emerged as a result of material and technological advances in the modern age. Needs that, if left unmet, can lead to destructive anxiety. Contemporary philosopher Alain de Bot More
      The need to be seen, affirmed, and recognized as successful human are emerging needs that have emerged as a result of material and technological advances in the modern age. Needs that, if left unmet, can lead to destructive anxiety. Contemporary philosopher Alain de Botton categorizes these anxieties as "dignity anxiety" and describes the causes and ways to deal with them. The idea put forward by Alain de Botton, was soon noticed by the authors, and numerous works in various artistic formats were created on this subject. Alireza Seif al-Dini's novel "Ketab-e Kham (Book of Bending)" is one of these works in which the author deals with the tumultuous life of a man who steps on his ideals in order to overcome the anxiety of dignity and to be recognized as a powerful husband and father. The present study, which has been written with a descriptive-analytical method, seeks to analyze the regressive process of his life while describing the backgrounds of the mentioned anxiety in the main character of the story. The results show that factors such as the importance of well-being and material development, changing the criteria for valuing poverty and wealth and the effectiveness of the offspring, along with fear of looking weak by the spouse and fear of not fulfilling paternal duties properly, cause anxiety in the person. The anxiety that the mentioned character seeks a way out of by paying attention to philosophy, art, the religious doctrine of death and the bohemian lifestyle. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - Semiotic analysis of female identity and life in the novel "Va Digaran (And Others)" by Mahbobeh Mirqadiri
      Sepideh Seyed Faraji Farhad Tahmasbi Ruqayyah Sadraie
      Issue 64 , Vol. 20 , Spring 2022
      Reading stories and novels is one of the ways to study the sociology of society and get acquainted with its cultural and social issues. One of the social issues that has been considered in sociology and has been the focus of storytelling in literature is the issue of bi More
      Reading stories and novels is one of the ways to study the sociology of society and get acquainted with its cultural and social issues. One of the social issues that has been considered in sociology and has been the focus of storytelling in literature is the issue of biosexuality. The issue of this research is the search for the biosexuality of Iranian women in the novel "Va Digaran (And Others)"and how to explain it with a semiotic perspective. Knowing this in novels can provide a lot of information about society and the views of people in society; One of the tools that can make this possible is social semiotics. In this article, an attempt has been made to clarify the hidden angles of the identity and biosexuality of Iranian women by examining the social signs of the novel "Va Digaran (And Others)"by Mahboubeh Ghadiri using the semiotics of Giro. Findings show that identity is the most important concern of the author and also the main character of the novel (narrator) as the second wife of a married man, seeks to explain aspects of his sexuality that have not previously appeared in the literature. The most important social symbols used in the novel are "place, language and name". Through the language, the narrator reveals women's bio-sexuality with hidden and overt references to female sexual experiences such as puberty, motherhood, abortion, and so on. Mir Ghadiri also well has represented and implicitly has objected to the patriarchal discourse order through the codes of social etiquette (customs). Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Rakhsh: horse entrusted from Garshasp to Rostam
      saeid shahrouei ebrahim mohammadi Sayyed Mahdi Rahimi
      Issue 64 , Vol. 20 , Spring 2022
      In this article, by analyzing the text and using a comparative method, the similarities between Rostam and Gershasep are examined from the point of view of the physical characteristics of the horses of those two. After receiving the title of world heroism, Rostam stands More
      In this article, by analyzing the text and using a comparative method, the similarities between Rostam and Gershasep are examined from the point of view of the physical characteristics of the horses of those two. After receiving the title of world heroism, Rostam stands against Afrasiab who has sent a large army to invade Iran. But in order to stand against the Turanians and set foot on the battlefield, he wants two things from Zal: one is a mace and the other is a horse. First, Zāl gives the mace of Garshasp- his great grandfather-to Rostam and then, by gathering many herds of horses, provides the conditions for Rostam to choose a suitable horse. Rostam chooses a slim waist horse from various horses. Regarding to the meaning of Garshasp's name and also attending to many similarities between him and Rostam, such as: being born from mother's side, being similar in dealing with fire, falling into a holl, a similar battle with Akvān and Gandarva, etc. it is hypothesized that Garshasp, who means the owner of a thin horse, in addition to his mace, gives his slender horse to Rostam as well. So, Rakhsh can be a reflection of the part "Kres" or "Kresh" in the name "Garshasp" which means lean horse. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Literature beyond the world of zero and one A review of the literature from the perspective of Fuzzy logic
      Zohre Kafi Amir Hossein Madani
      Issue 64 , Vol. 20 , Spring 2022
      To know this subject that the literature has Fuzzy nature not Aristotelian, can help audiences and analyzers to have a more open view when dealing with texts. Literature, like any other science and art, has the ability to be evaluated, and according to the logic that go More
      To know this subject that the literature has Fuzzy nature not Aristotelian, can help audiences and analyzers to have a more open view when dealing with texts. Literature, like any other science and art, has the ability to be evaluated, and according to the logic that governs it, one can judge whether any text is literary or not. For this reason, concepts such as literature, mystical literature, Aristotelian logic and fuzzy logic have been defined in this research, and then the relationship between literature and Aristotelian and fuzzy logic has been investigated. In this analysis, four main literary elements of a text (emotion, imagination, polysemy and form) have been analyzed in a fuzzy diagram along with an example of Persian literature. In all four cases, the result shows that a text can be placed in the circle of literature by having a degree of each of these four elements, and its literary ratio is determined according to the degree of these elements. In all four cases, the result shows that a text can be placed in the circle of literature by having a degree of each of these four elements, and its literary ratio is determined according to the degree of these elements. Manuscript profile
    Most Viewed Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Classification of the Kramat of Olia
      Mohammad Roodgar
      Issue 60 , Vol. 19 , Spring 2021
      The main issue in all the Sufi tricks is Kramat. Kramat are unknown or less known phenomena that have hidden and supernatural causes. Neglecting the recognition, definition, classification and the mystical foundations of them, has led many to deny these facts. One of th More
      The main issue in all the Sufi tricks is Kramat. Kramat are unknown or less known phenomena that have hidden and supernatural causes. Neglecting the recognition, definition, classification and the mystical foundations of them, has led many to deny these facts. One of the necessary preconditions for the recognition of Kramat is its various classification methods. The classification of a phenomenon that human beings can not understand the causes of its causes is a complicated subject that has been addressed by mystics, Sufis and scholars. However, it has not been reported in the mystical texts of the scientific and comprehensive classification of Kramat. Most of these texts are dedicated to enumeration of Kramat samples. Kramat Sometimes classified up against contrary to habits and sometimes among themselves. The present study is devoted to the classification of Kramat among themselves and studied in more than fifteen new and old classifications of different dignity. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - mythical places in folktales
      Sara  Chalak
      Issue 60 , Vol. 19 , Spring 2021
      Mythical thought is a kind of worldview that has always saved his situation in humans mind. Mythical idea introduce itself by divide the phenomena of the world into sacred and unholy. Locality is an important mythical subject that differ from modern man’s thinking about More
      Mythical thought is a kind of worldview that has always saved his situation in humans mind. Mythical idea introduce itself by divide the phenomena of the world into sacred and unholy. Locality is an important mythical subject that differ from modern man’s thinking about place. Mythical place differ from its surrounding because it is sacred. It may be an archetype like mount or fountain, or may be it has become sacred because of the unworldly object. It has influential power to characters.it can change characters. Folktale as an old type of oral literature contain the insight, philosophic thought and life style of past human being. One of the mythical subject in folktales is locality. This places cause of the relationship with the transcendental affairs, consider as a mythical place. Most of characters in folktale, change mentally by being there and their destiny change. In this article, we tried to use the theories of great mythologists such as Mircea Eliade and Ernest Cassirer to analyze e few sets of folktales. For this purpose, the places such as mount, fountain, sea, river, garden, well were investigated.and their mythical modality was examined. my research method in this article is descriptive and analithical. . Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - Analysis of the effect of short words of Nahj al-Balaghah in Persian literature (with emphasis on the wisdom of 142 Nahj al-Balaghah, citing verses of the Quran)
      Fakhrieh Namazian Jalil Tajlil Ruqayyah Sadraie
      Issue 60 , Vol. 19 , Spring 2021
      Roghaiyeh sadraie*** Nahj al-Balaghah, as one of the reliable sources that can be cited, has been called "Akho Al-Quran" (brother of the Quran). This book has been compiled by Sayyid Razi from the poets and jurists of the fourth century. Many truths of the Holy Quran More
      Roghaiyeh sadraie*** Nahj al-Balaghah, as one of the reliable sources that can be cited, has been called "Akho Al-Quran" (brother of the Quran). This book has been compiled by Sayyid Razi from the poets and jurists of the fourth century. Many truths of the Holy Quran have been described in this book.The present article uses the wisdom of 142 to examine the extent of the effect of short words of Nahj al-Balaghah in Persian literature and seeks to prove the deep and close relationship between the teachings of Nahj al-Balaghah and the Holy Quran and the impact of these teachings on Persian literature.In this article, the answers to the following questions are analyzed by descriptive method and by following the content of one of the acronyms. Is the source of the wisdom of Nahj al-Balaghah the divine knowledge of the Holy Quran? To what extent has the moral and divine knowledge of Nahj al-Balaghah dominated the Iranian literature?Obviously, the works of Persian literature have been influenced in various ways, including adaptations, allusions, inspirations, etc. from the source of revelation and, consequently, from the words of the Amir al-Mo'menin. In this article, the wisdom No. 139 of Nahj al-Balaghah has been pondered and revised with regard to the roots of words and the Quranic sources and its effect on Persian literature has been discussed. Scholars believe that Nahj al-Balaghah is the interpretation of the Qur'an. The subject of this article is to find the divine sources of the words of the Amir al-Mo'menin, and to show its reflection in Iranian literary works. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - A study of the content and structure of interpretation in the spiritual Masnavi
      Maryam  Nafeli Shahrestani hosein aghahoseini
      Issue 60 , Vol. 19 , Spring 2021
      Interpretation means returning something to its original state, the background of which is to be found in Greek hermeneutics. Hermeneutics is the theory of the act of understanding in its relation to the interpretation of texts. Mystics have paid much attention to the More
      Interpretation means returning something to its original state, the background of which is to be found in Greek hermeneutics. Hermeneutics is the theory of the act of understanding in its relation to the interpretation of texts. Mystics have paid much attention to the interpretation and content of the Qur'an. Rumi has also used interpretation in Masnavi.He looked at interpretation very broadly and did not consider interpretation specific to the Qur'an; For this reason, he has used interpretation on various topics. The research method in this article is descriptive and its purpose is to study the types of interpretations in the three books of Masnavi in terms of content and structure. The interpretations used in the three books of Masnavi based on the subject are: interpretation of Quranic verses and hadiths, interpretation of the stories of the prophets, interpretation of mystical, religious and jurisprudential, moral and philosophical issues.By examining the three books of Masnavi Manavi, 136 interpretations were extracted on these subjects, most of which consistes of interpretations of Quranic verses. Rumi has used various tricks to express interpretation; Interpretation from the language of the characters of the story, interpretation in the form of similes and metaphors, allegorical interpretation and causal interpretation are among them. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - The"Avaze koshtegan"(The song of the slain), from the view of the Critical Theory of the Frankfurt School, with Emphasis on the Theories of Herbert Marcuse Critique of Modern Society in the Novel of the
      Mahnaz Fooladi maryam hoseini
      Issue 60 , Vol. 19 , Spring 2021
      Reza Barahani, a contemporary writer, has criticized the socio-political and cultural structure of the society of his time in his numerous novels. In this article, an attempt has been made to critique and analyze one of these novels, The"Avaze koshtegan"(The song More
      Reza Barahani, a contemporary writer, has criticized the socio-political and cultural structure of the society of his time in his numerous novels. In this article, an attempt has been made to critique and analyze one of these novels, The"Avaze koshtegan"(The song of the slain), from the view of the Critical Theory of the Frankfurt School, with Emphasis on the Theories of Herbert Marcuse (1879-1979). The German philosopher and sociologist Marcuse is known as the spiritual father of the protest movements of the 1960s. In the novel "Avaze koshtegan"(The song of the slain), Baraheni describes the cultural struggle of the academic and intellectual strata, as well as the tools of" the ruling system in suppressing and dominating the people, questions the existing order and tries to improve the situation of his society.The achivement of the research is that Baraheni in his critique of the society of his time in three section of repressive tolerance, alternative society and culture industry has criticized the socio-political and cultural society and has tried to change the situation of his society with the tools of art and pen. Move towards the ideal utopian society of the Frankfurt Theorists Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - The Pattern of the History of Knowledge and the Resurrection of Meaning in Shahaboddin Yahya Sohrewardi's Thought
      Zahra Mahouzi  Ghobadi  Pakatchi maryam آخسسثهده
      Issue 51 , Vol. 16 , Winter 2019
      The history of knowledge that is considered by Sohrewardi in Hikmat-Al-Ishraq follows a pattern that has been formulated before him in the Sufi texts. This historical pattern which is based on a hadith attributed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) foretells the future o More
      The history of knowledge that is considered by Sohrewardi in Hikmat-Al-Ishraq follows a pattern that has been formulated before him in the Sufi texts. This historical pattern which is based on a hadith attributed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) foretells the future of esoteric knowledge of Islam after the Prophet. As to the fate of divine knowledge on earth, this pattern defines three stages: the era of knowledge by presence, the era of assenting meaning to the word, and the period in which metaphor is converted to symbol. Sohrewardi refers to this historical pattern and completes it by presenting a certain definition of the Divine Hakim and his role in interpreting the mysteries of the mystics. By this action, he makes a commentary on the history of knowledge. The fourth stage that Sohrewardi adds to this historical pattern is the resurrection stage of meaning to its truth, and it can be defined only by reference to the totality of Sohrewardi's intellectual system. The present article attempts to extract this historical pattern from the Sufi texts and then explains Sohrewardi's role in completing it. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      7 - A Critical Review and Analysis of the Narrative Technique in a Story of the Golestan of Saadi
        mostafa gorji
      Issue 38 , Vol. 13 , Autumn 2015
      One of the main subjects that has been a matter of attention to the literary researchers is reviewing the narrative techniques of the poets and writers who are well known in the field of narration. Discovering the mystery of these narratives, not only can manifest th More
      One of the main subjects that has been a matter of attention to the literary researchers is reviewing the narrative techniques of the poets and writers who are well known in the field of narration. Discovering the mystery of these narratives, not only can manifest the value of the previous works, but also helps today’s writers in achieving the effective narrative techniques. Discovering the deeper layers of the Golestan of Saadi demands deep thinking, and through reviewing and reinterpreting it, new literary potentials can be found. This research aims at a critical study and analysis of narrative discourse and the structure of narration in the story about a young boxer in the third chapter of Golestan. It shows how much Saadi has been successful in induction of his beliefs through finding the proper forms related to them and based on the assimilation of form and content, he creates a piece of work which has different dimensions of a literary work all together, a work which satisfies the audience through different eras. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Reviewing and Criticism of Research Articles on Literature in 1380 (2000) Decade
      عبدالله  راز ahmad razi
      Issue 32 , Vol. 12 , Spring 2014
      Publishing research articles in contemporary period is an appropriate chance to share research findings of different scholars and informing audiences about new scientific achievements. Although their publishing have been quantitatively increasing in recent decade, there More
      Publishing research articles in contemporary period is an appropriate chance to share research findings of different scholars and informing audiences about new scientific achievements. Although their publishing have been quantitatively increasing in recent decade, there were no due attention to their assessment and criticism. This article, with a descriptive-analytic method, assesses those kinds of research articles published from 1381/2001 to 1390/2011. The research expresses advantages and disadvantages of these articles and presents a picture of the status of scientific article writing in domain of literary studies. In so doing, 345 articles were selected as examples and most important subjects under focus of authors were identified and were classified in frame of text-based, context-based, author-based, reader-based, and different articles. Moreover, patterns of cooperation between authors, and quality and quantity of used resources in these articles were presented in different charts and tables. As this issue is so important and to assess the accuracy of obtained results from main sample size, another set of 345 articles were exactly reviewed in two groups of “evidence 1” and “evidence 2”. This review shows that although articles have various subjects, apply different kinds of resources, consider some interdisciplinary approaches particularly in second half of this decade relative accuracy in composing coherent articles, specialty of some journals related to literature and considerable increase of university instructors and students cooperation in publishing articles, there are lots of deficiencies in these articles, like methodology, dominance of descriptive approach, repeated contents, lack of critical view, high frequency of education-based articles, and spread of quantitative and formal criteria and so on… Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      9 - Brevity and Deletion in Contemporary Poetry (Focusing on Nima Yushij, Ahmad Shamlu, Mahdi Akhavan Sales, Sohrab Sepehri, and Yad-al Allah Ro’yaei)
      لیلا  کردبچه
      Issue 34 , Vol. 12 , Autumn 2014
      Brevity means decorating speech from additional comments and unnecessary elements, so that the most content may be stated by the lowest number of words; this method, which is also used in old literature but its special consideration is one the most significant successes More
      Brevity means decorating speech from additional comments and unnecessary elements, so that the most content may be stated by the lowest number of words; this method, which is also used in old literature but its special consideration is one the most significant successes of Contemporary Poetry, changed the syntactical structures in addition to speech briefing. The focus of some contemporary poets to some of these methods is practically an approach toward old linguistic structures, but some others can be regarded as the linguistic achievements of Contemporary Literature. The article reviews the methods of achieving Brevity in two main groups of brevity and deletion methods in poems of a group of contemporary poets and compares them with deletion and brevity methods in Old Classic Literature; we aimed to show the effect of Old Classic Literature linguistic structures on some part of brevity structures and the degree of innovation in some deletion methods of Contemporary Poem, in addition to identifying these methods in Contemporary Poem. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      10 - The Stylistics of Mahmoud Dowlatabadi’s Novel - ‘Jay-e Khali-ye Solouch’
      ميلاد  شمعي
      Issue 13 , Vol. 7 , Spring 2009
      Style is a writer’s or a poet’s specific way of expressing their intended concepts in literary works. Style has been defined in various ways. Today, it refers to the methods that are used to analytical study of literature by using linguistic devices. It also studies the More
      Style is a writer’s or a poet’s specific way of expressing their intended concepts in literary works. Style has been defined in various ways. Today, it refers to the methods that are used to analytical study of literature by using linguistic devices. It also studies the point of view, linguistic features, the ways of characterization and formation of the theme. The main characteristics of Mahmoud Dowlatabadi’s works, especially his novel ‘Jay-e Khali-ye Solouch’ is giving importance to the language, and the poetic structure of the text. For instance, employing the region & ethnic-specific words and expressions in this novel reveals the main feature of his archaic language adapted from the works such as Tarikh-e Beihaqi. The authors of the present article attempt to explore the stylistic features of the novel ‘Jay-e Khali-ye Solouch’, studying its linguistic and poetic structures, including lexemes, imagery, variations among the sentences, rhythm, repetition, cohesion, emphasis, and so on. Manuscript profile
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    hosseinali Ghobadi (Professor of Tarbiat Modares University) Mehdi Mohaghegh (Professor, University of Tehran) Ahmad Tamimdari (Professor of Allameh Tabatabaei University) Naser Nikoobakht (Professor of Tarbiat Modares University) Seyed Jafar Hamidi (Professor of Shahid Beheshti University) Saeed Bozorg Bigdeli (Associate Professor of Tarbiat Modares University) Ahmad Khatami (Professor of Shahid Beheshti University) Mostafa Gorji (Professor of Payame Noor University) Hakimeh Dabiran (Professor of Kharazmi University) Mojtaba Monshizadeh (Professor of Allameh Tabatabaei University) Manouchehr Akbari (Professor, University of Tehran) (Professor of Allameh Tabatabaei University) mohammad taghavi (Professor of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad) Mahin Panahi (Professor of Al-Zahra University) Ahmad Razi (Professor of the University of Guilan) Zahra Parsapoor (Associate Professor, Institute of Humanities and Cultural Studies) hejabi gherlanghich (Professor at Ankara University) Seyyed Mostafa Mousavi Rad (Associate Professor, University of Tehran) Mohammad naser Rahyab (Professor of Herat University ) Zeinab Saberpoor (Assistant Professor Tarbiat Modares )
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    Number of Volumes 20
    Number of Issues 62
    Printed Articles 467
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    Article Views 1121900
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    Number of Submitted Articles 2173
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    Acceptance 22 %
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    Last Update 2/1/2023