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      • Open Access Article

        1 - Examples of Prophetical Epigrams in Literary Texts
        مهين  پناهي
        This research intends to respond to this question; due to the fact that Quran says; "it was spoken to him", "he does not speak of lust and likes", and " you have an excellent morales", would Prophet Mohammad speak of epigrams and funny words? If so, then what category Full Text
        This research intends to respond to this question; due to the fact that Quran says; "it was spoken to him", "he does not speak of lust and likes", and " you have an excellent morales", would Prophet Mohammad speak of epigrams and funny words? If so, then what category would Prophet's epigrams would fit in? What elements were mostly used in them? Has the Prophet considered any limitations for such epigrams? This research shows that at that time, Prophet Mohammad did mean to speak funny and witty words. However, he never violated moralities. The prophets' witty words are categorized in two groups; first are the wise witty words with a advice; and the second groups are the general witty words that are less complicated. The general witty words are two kinds; the witty words of "situation" and "phrasal" ones. The phrasal ones include linguistic rhetorical ones such as puns and ambiguities, brevity, creating wonders in the language and behavior, paradox and antithesis. Also part of these witty words is instructional. The prophetical witty words are mostly linguistic and phrasal ones, symbols, and emblems, intending to humiliate and insult others, and rarely seen in them. Nevertheless, since at times, the term "witty words" is used in the domain of offence, insult and humiliation or even the social matters, and the prophet's lofty character is superior to any of this, no one has ever categorized the dear Prophet's words at all. The writer of this research has called all the Prophet's witty linguistic points, comments and words "witty" to be polite within the religious borders without any exception. Manuscript Document
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        2 - Miracles of Prophet Mohammad in Persian Poetry
        احمد  گلي
        As Rumi says, the irrationality or even the ultra-mind nature of the Prophet's learning and discourses, have made the miracles a necessity. At each period, these miracles have coordinated with the rate of people's understanding; depending on the invitation the prophet h Full Text
        As Rumi says, the irrationality or even the ultra-mind nature of the Prophet's learning and discourses, have made the miracles a necessity. At each period, these miracles have coordinated with the rate of people's understanding; depending on the invitation the prophet has made. The Holy Quran is the major miracle of Prophet Mohammad; and it asked the pagans and enemies to compete with it; the Islamic term for this is "Tahaddi". Of course, Quran had already predicted and even emphasized on the failure and definite inability of these dissenters. What is more, due to special events and occasions, other miracles occurred through the prophet; or even occurred for his dear sake. The books that discussed the prophet's manners and his words and sayings (Hadiss), reflected all this. And as a result they were also revealed in the Persian texts. This paper intends to analyze and express these issues within the four major areas. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Examples of Prophetical Epigrams in Literary Texts
        غلامحسين  غلامحسين‌زاده
        This research intends to respond to this question; due to the fact that Quran says; "it was spoken to him", "he does not speak of lust and likes", and " you have an excellent morales", would Prophet Mohammad speak of epigrams and funny words? If so, then what category Full Text
        This research intends to respond to this question; due to the fact that Quran says; "it was spoken to him", "he does not speak of lust and likes", and " you have an excellent morales", would Prophet Mohammad speak of epigrams and funny words? If so, then what category would Prophet's epigrams would fit in? What elements were mostly used in them? Has the Prophet considered any limitations for such epigrams? This research shows that at that time, Prophet Mohammad did mean to speak funny and witty words. However, he never violated moralities. The prophets' witty words are categorized in two groups; first are the wise witty words with a advice; and the second groups are the general witty words that are less complicated. The general witty words are two kinds; the witty words of "situation" and "phrasal" ones. The phrasal ones include linguistic rhetorical ones such as puns and ambiguities, brevity, creating wonders in the language and behavior, paradox and antithesis. Also part of these witty words is instructional. The prophetical witty words are mostly linguistic and phrasal ones, symbols, and emblems, intending to humiliate and insult others, and rarely seen in them. Nevertheless, since at times, the term "witty words" is used in the domain of offence, insult and humiliation or even the social matters, and the prophet's lofty character is superior to any of this, no one has ever categorized the dear Prophet's words at all. The writer of this research has called all the Prophet's witty linguistic points, comments and words "witty" to be polite within the religious borders without any exception. Keywords: Persian Literary Texts, Verbal Witty words, Prophet Mohammad. Miracles of Prophet Mohammad in Persian Poetry Ahmad Goli* As Rumi says, the irrationality or even the ultra-mind nature of the Prophet's learning and discourses, have made the miracles a necessity. At each period, these miracles have coordinated with the rate of people's understanding; depending on the invitation the prophet has made. The Holy Quran is the major miracle of Prophet Mohammad; and it asked the pagans and enemies to compete with it; the Islamic term for this is "Tahaddi". Of course, Quran had already predicted and even emphasized on the failure and definite inability of these dissenters. What is more, due to special events and occasions, other miracles occurred through the prophet; or even occurred for his dear sake. The books that discussed the prophet's manners and his words and sayings (Hadiss), reflected all this. And as a result they were also revealed in the Persian texts. This paper intends to analyze and express these issues within the four major areas. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Analysis of Prophet Mohammad's Ascension Position in Meiybodi's Kashf-Al-Asrar Interpretation
        مجيد  سرمدي محمود  شيخ
        Prophet Mohammad and the events of his life enjoys a particular position befor the Muslims. The Islamic scholars- whether mystic, theologist, or philosopher- have constantly made an attempt to express and reveal his character and they have spoke of his position within t Full Text
        Prophet Mohammad and the events of his life enjoys a particular position befor the Muslims. The Islamic scholars- whether mystic, theologist, or philosopher- have constantly made an attempt to express and reveal his character and they have spoke of his position within the universe and his stand compared to the other prophets. There is no doubt that initially, this attempt had affectionate roots; but then later on its theoretical aspects and dimensions overcame its passionate aspects. The purpose of this research is to identify two significant incidents in Prophets' life that express his character better considering how they are revealed in Kashf-Al-Asrar and then show the role of the Ascent in this relation as mentioned in this book. As Meiybodi had mystical tendencies himself in the interpretation and paraphrase of the Quran and in quoting the Ascent, he is more concerned about the mystical and passionate aspects. So he merely focuses on the knowledge and superiority of Prophet in the spiritual statue. Meanwhile he does not mention the borders on the theory of "perfect human" while the central issue is "the truth about Mohammad"; a discussion which later on became one of the most basic discussions for the mystics and the theoretical sophists. Manuscript Document
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        5 - Prophet's Figure in Hojviri's Kashf-Al- Mahjoob
        ابراهيم  سلامي
        The great Prophet's figure is reflected deservingly in many of the prose and poetical Persian literary works showing how devoted the authors and the poets are to this dear character. "Kashf-ol-Mahjoob" is one of the great Persian literary masterpieces of the fifth centu Full Text
        The great Prophet's figure is reflected deservingly in many of the prose and poetical Persian literary works showing how devoted the authors and the poets are to this dear character. "Kashf-ol-Mahjoob" is one of the great Persian literary masterpieces of the fifth century by Hojviri. He first points to the Quran's verses, and then he focuses on Prophet's words, his manner and attitude. The purpose of this article is revealing Prophet's superiorities, emphasizing on his kindness, affection and the necessity for gaining more knowledge about this dear character. For this purpose, Prophet Mohammad has been compared to other prophets such as Moses, Abraham, and David. Then Prophet Mohammad's morality and behavior, specially his passion and kindness, generosity, spirit for prayer and his mystical attitude in deeds such as prayer, fasting, sleep and wakening- all mentioned in Hojviri's book- are surveyed. The results show that Prophet Mohammad was very kind, affectionate, and generous and had a giving nature. He had a hard-working spirit and seeking and desiring to obey God and he was the person God loved. Manuscript Document
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        6 - Features of Prophet Mohammad in Khaqani Shervani’s Poetry Book
        روشنك  رضائي
        Prophet Mohammad’s life, manner, behavior, and lofty spirit counts as a valuable enchanting treasure for mankind. And the vast domain of his features finds a particular and especial manifestation in the mind, soul, spirit and the language of the Muslims. This paper inte Full Text
        Prophet Mohammad’s life, manner, behavior, and lofty spirit counts as a valuable enchanting treasure for mankind. And the vast domain of his features finds a particular and especial manifestation in the mind, soul, spirit and the language of the Muslims. This paper intends to survey and analysis the portrayal of Prophet Mohammad in Khaqani’s Book of Poetry; in Persian known as the ‘Divan’. First, there is a brief introduction on the historical events, personal and social characteristics, and also the life of Prophet Mohammad and after that there are precise and clear poems taken from Khaqani’s Divan for further evidence. Also some of the quotes and speeches made by Prophet Mohammad-of notice in Khaqani’s poetry- are highlighted. This feature in Khaqani’s poetry clearly demonstrates to what extent this poet was sincerely devoted to dear Prophet Mohammad. While it can also be said that Khaqani as a matter of fact enriched his poetry through relating to Prophet’s life and words and furthermore blessed his own poetry by this element. Manuscript Document
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        7 - Analysis and Comparison of Prophet Mohammad's Praise and Ascension in Attar's Four Massnavi Books (Elahi-Nameh, Assrar-Nameh, Manteq Al Tair & Mosibat-Nameh)
         
        The Prophet Mohammad's praise and ascension are among the topics of concern to most poets and writers; in a manner that in our literary tradition these two issues are counted as the major themes of classic works. Attar Neishabouri, who followed this tradition, has discu Full Text
        The Prophet Mohammad's praise and ascension are among the topics of concern to most poets and writers; in a manner that in our literary tradition these two issues are counted as the major themes of classic works. Attar Neishabouri, who followed this tradition, has discussed these two topics in detail at the beginning of his four versified works; “Elahi-Nameh”, “Asrar-Nameh”, “Manteq-Al Tair” and “Mosibat-Nameh”. This research has studied the mentioned themes in the four works. The result of the research revealed that the praise and spiritual ascension found two different structures in these works. While in Elahi-Nameh and Manteq-Al Tair these two parts are intermingled, they are quite separate in Asrar-Nameh and Mosibat-Nameh. Still the praise of the Prophet have one structure in all the four works; yet the story of the Prophet's ascent is more reliable in Mosibat-Nameh. These two parts do not possess much poetical parts and one can only regard the story of the Ascent as the most poetical part in Elahi-Nameh. Ambiguity was Aattar's most favorite literary figure. Within the linguistic domain and its related features, the repetition of words and the repetition of a linguistic phrase at the beginning, are the most significant linguistic features in these two parts. Manuscript Document
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        8 - The Reflection of Prophet Mohammad’s Character in Sanayie’s Language and Mind
        manouchehr akbari
        There is no doubt that the survey and analysis of Prophet’s life is one of the most significant and influential topics in the series of the Persian Literature Researches. This study took place through focusing on the valuable literary work entitled as “Hadiqa” and was Full Text
        There is no doubt that the survey and analysis of Prophet’s life is one of the most significant and influential topics in the series of the Persian Literature Researches. This study took place through focusing on the valuable literary work entitled as “Hadiqa” and was done by a descriptive-analytic method. Sanayi, the author of Hadiqa, respected the character of Prophet Mohammad, the prominent points in his life, his spiritual, moral dimensions, his lofty position and even his other subtle aspects to the extent that he actually devoted one of the ten chapters of his book on the dear Prophet. Sanayi has poetically offered the story of the Prophet’s Heavenly Ascent, his superiority over all the other prophets, his amazing manners and behaviors, the never-ending spirit of blessing- as the major medium for the essential creation of the universe- his superiority over Adam and the other prophets, his role within the allusions mentioned in the Holy Quran, and the reflection of the most significant matters within the Prophet’s life in his book. Manuscript Document
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        9 - Theological analysis of Exclusive Prophecy in Sanayi's "Hadiqat"
        Ahmad  Khatami
        Despite all the attempts made by researchers on the interpretation and analysis of the Persian versified texts and works, including Sanayi's works and especially his book “Hadiqat-Al Haqiqat”, still there ought to be a lot more research done on the study of most of the Full Text
        Despite all the attempts made by researchers on the interpretation and analysis of the Persian versified texts and works, including Sanayi's works and especially his book “Hadiqat-Al Haqiqat”, still there ought to be a lot more research done on the study of most of the verse texts; including the mystical verse texts as well. Most of the mystical works have the potential for further survey, and from other aspects in addition to the mystical aspect; one of which can be the theological survey of such works. Obviously, Sanayi, and the mystical-spirited poets after him that have mostly been influenced by his thoughts, style, ideas and methods and manners as well, have all expressed deep theological insights along with mystical issues in their works. Actually, without access to these thoughts and ideas, which shows the basics of their faith and belief principles, a precise evaluation and survey of their mystical position becomes impossible. The present article intends to make a theological study of the exclusive prophecy from the perspective of the Islamic dialectics, search and inspect the same issue in Hadiqat-Al Haqiqat. Then it reveals Sanayi's approach towards the dear Prophet Mohammad, evaluates, and finally analyzes the findings with the well-known theological findings of his own time. In the final section it means to show what Sanayi followed due to the subject of the religious theological topic and in which parts he has offered his own point of view or refused to follow the special religious ideas in particular cases. Manuscript Document
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        10 - Prophet Mohammad in the Paraphrasing Attitude of Shams-Eddin Mohammad Tabrizi
        mostafa gorji
        Most of the Persian literary texts, speak about the prophets and their stories, and the mystical texts have focused on this issue seriously. In Shams's “Maqalat”, due to his paraphrasing mind-structure, the events mentioned in the history of the prophets' lives is parap Full Text
        Most of the Persian literary texts, speak about the prophets and their stories, and the mystical texts have focused on this issue seriously. In Shams's “Maqalat”, due to his paraphrasing mind-structure, the events mentioned in the history of the prophets' lives is paraphrased and at the same time, their sayings are interpreted according to the author's beliefs and ideology. These Maqalat were written either on the basis of reasoning and solid proofs, and also for elaborating the author's attitude, or for blessing, rejoice, as flashes of mind or for introducing a perfect human in all aspects. In this regard, Prophet Mohammad is the high and superior example of such a human. This article discusses the Prophet's features from this perspective within Sham's Maqalat. It then shows the paradoxical points in Sham's works. The important point is that in this work, Shams has had in mind the most general topics in the domain of prophetical manners to even answers for some of the taboo questions; which are at times innovative and new. For example, there is even a comparison made between the author himself with Prophet Mohammad or other prophets and at times, he disagrees with them. The implicit comparison of Rumi with the Prophet of Islam is another one of the issues mentioned. The other matters discussed include; major features of Prophet Mohammad, Mohammad's obvious sciences, the value of the voiceless Quran versus the speaking Quran, the magnificence of the Quran for the sake of Mohammad and not for the sake of God, God's special guest, the beloved Mohammad in the cloth of the lover, Mohammad's spiritual light, Prophet Mohammad as the great starter of life in the universe, other people as wandering birds, God's need for Prophet Mohammad, the inherent knowledge imparted by God (known as "Elme-Ladonni") etc. The article surveys and interprets all the mentioned issues. Manuscript Document
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        11 - Analysis of Rumi's Attitude towards Prophet Mohammad
        بخشعلی  قنبری
        Prophet Mohammad enjoys a very exclusive position for Rumi. In his eyes, compared to the other prophets, Prophet Mohammad is like a fruit created by the tree of prophecy. Therefore, although Prophet Mohammad is the last prophet, he is the most superior one. Rumi believe Full Text
        Prophet Mohammad enjoys a very exclusive position for Rumi. In his eyes, compared to the other prophets, Prophet Mohammad is like a fruit created by the tree of prophecy. Therefore, although Prophet Mohammad is the last prophet, he is the most superior one. Rumi believes that Prophet Mohammad brought messages with himself that a human will need as long as he is alive. That is because Prophet Mohammad has opened locks which no one else ever even made any attempt to open. However, of course one can utilize them on these conditions; first; feeling the need and necessity to use them, in other words man must be aware of his spiritual and physical needs in the first place; so that this awareness leads him towards Prophet's discourses. Second; one must seek to practice them in life as an individual. Third; make a comparison between an undesired life with the desired spiritual life so that he would realize and be grateful for the Prophet. Certainly being aware of the great Prophet's position and statue can lead any individual towards this path, because regarding this stand and the Prophet's precious discourses one can use his words. There is no doubt that morality, knowledge, and mystics are among the learning issues that the contemporary human being can make most use of in life according to the Prophet's discourses. Once such points are noticed precisely, then one can point to Prophet's great deeds and services and finally utilize the related findings in life. Manuscript Document
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        12 - Criticism and Analysis of Massnavi's Allegorical Narratives on Prophet Mohammad's Character
        فاطمه  كوپا
        The literary language is one of the linguistic genres that speaks of a specific experimental and conceptual domain. The reason is that one can merely discover the literary language of objects within the domain of conceptual texts, and within the allusive and symbolic re Full Text
        The literary language is one of the linguistic genres that speaks of a specific experimental and conceptual domain. The reason is that one can merely discover the literary language of objects within the domain of conceptual texts, and within the allusive and symbolic relations. What is in fact considered as the pleasant and nice part of the literary word roots from these deep and internal layers of the conceptual and passionate parts of the work as reflected in the language. One of the means and functional devices of the literary word that possesses a vast potential in the symbolical expression of pictures and concepts is "allegory” which has found a considerable power in Rumi's Massnavi Ma'anavi. Apparently, the structure of the stories in Massnavi shows that the speaker has had the concealed and inner concepts of the words in mind. The order of the elements, the incidents and the phrases within the allegorical narratives in Massnavi is in a manner through which the audience will be led towards the concealed and implied concepts in the depth of the narratives; due to the coordination between the artist and the art-seeker. This research intends to respond to two questions; 1. What is the precise concept of allegory and allegorical literature? Moreover, what are its practical functioning fields and areas? 2. In what method has Rumi utilized the allegorical potential of the narratives related to Prophet Mohammad? The criteria for choosing and selecting the narratives have been the prominence of the narratives in enjoying allegory. Manuscript Document
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        13 - Reflection of Prophet's Character in Contemporary Persian Poetry
        سعید  بزرگ بیگدلی مریم  صادقی گیوی
        The high, lofty and the humane manner, in addition to the unique behavior of the Prophet Mohammad, have always been of notice to the poets and writers in the Persian literature. After Islam, the Persian poets praised that dear character due to a variety of occasions. Es Full Text
        The high, lofty and the humane manner, in addition to the unique behavior of the Prophet Mohammad, have always been of notice to the poets and writers in the Persian literature. After Islam, the Persian poets praised that dear character due to a variety of occasions. Especially after rejoicing God and the creator of the universe, they have focused on the praise and the commemoration of this dear Prophet, the high rank of the Prophet; as the last Prophet and especially by emphasizing on one point; that Prophet Mohammad is the center of the whole universe. Based on Ibn-Arabi's interpretation and the mystics following him, they believe that Mohammad's truth lies at the center of the universe and is indeed the major reason for the creation of the world in the first place. The Iranian literary poets and writters have reflected the life events and the different aspects of this perfect and ideal character, as the perfect human and man's role model in all life in their works. This issue is observed in the traditional Persian poetry. This article intends to survey the contemporary Persian poets' works regarding the Prophets' character. The purpose of this study is to survey the quality of such reflections through comparing the traditional and modern poetry. this research reveals that the contemporary poets reflect the Prophet's character through four aspects; praise, incidental, narrative and illustrious within their poems. In addition, most of the prominent poets who have composed poetry in the four mentioned aspects are also analyzed and evaluated too. Manuscript Document