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      • Open Access Article

        1 - Beauty in the Speech of Prominent Islamic Figures Analysis of Rhetorical Ornaments in two Islamic Prayers
        حميد  عابديها
        The Holy Quran is the main resource for all knowledge, chastity and beauties. The words and speech of the prominent Islamic figures has the second place regarding such beauty due to the unique connection and bond these figures exclusively enjoyed with the Creator. The m Full Text
        The Holy Quran is the main resource for all knowledge, chastity and beauties. The words and speech of the prominent Islamic figures has the second place regarding such beauty due to the unique connection and bond these figures exclusively enjoyed with the Creator. The most beautiful word and speech belong to Imam Ali, who indeed is regarded as the major criteria of eloquence and oration. For instance one can trace some cases of rhetorical ornaments and discourse eloquences in Sabah, a prayer and also the Sixteenth Speech of Nahj-ol-Ballaqe. For instance in the prayer of Sabah, there are words which rhyme in a variety of aspects, while there are some other figures of speech seen within statements as well. Other figures of speech such as puns, alliterations etc are seen used for spiritual conveyance in this prayer. In the Sixteenth Speech of Nahj-ol-Ballaqe, rhetorical ornaments, and a variety of figures of speech are used, especially simile. Manuscript Document
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        2 - Study of Rumi and Rumi-Researchers in English Speaking Countries
        احمد  تميم‌داري
        The subject of this paper relates to comparative literature and the impact the literary figures, thinkers and illustrators have taken from Persian literary works; especially Rumi’s most significant and prominent works. The method of research in this essay is referentia Full Text
        The subject of this paper relates to comparative literature and the impact the literary figures, thinkers and illustrators have taken from Persian literary works; especially Rumi’s most significant and prominent works. The method of research in this essay is referential and inductive. We have made an attempt to become familiar with the great American and English men of letters; ones who have compiled important works through either translation or adaptation and made a serious effort to introduce the Persian literature, especially Rumi’s poetry in the English speaking countries. Since the eighteenth century, and following movements such as studying Iran, Islam, and the East, Persian literature was noticed and therefore some of the literary men, scientists, and illustrators begun translating and adapting the Persian literary works. It was in the same century that the study of Rumi’s works became significant. The English and American Transcendentalists both idealized the school of Transcendentalism through studying and having researches on Rumi’s works. It was about late nineteenth century, in 1870, that Mankar Daniel Canoy published The Sacred Anthology of Oriental Texts. Some of Rumi’s stories stated the ideals of social moral and behavioral issues. William R. Alger, one of Emerson’s friends, published The First American Anthology of Oriental Literature. Edward J. Brown translated the prose introduction of The First Volume of Massnavi into English. The climax of studies on Rumi’s works was done by Reynold Elaine Nicholson; who published eight books for the interpretation and paraphrase of Massnavi and actually devoted fifteen years of his life to this issue. Arthur J. Arbery is counted as one of the great thinkers in the field of Rumi studies. James J.Koan, an art teacher, rewrote fifty of the selected poems from Nicholson’s Poetry- taken from Shams Tabrizi’s Book of Poetry- in a modern poetic structure. And finally Andrew Harroy created some works as memorials of Rumi’s works. Manuscript Document
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        3 - The Influence of Rumi on Fuzi Mostari about Perfect Human
        سداد  ديزدارويج
        The comparison of the attitudes of the poets and writers of different countries on the major evolutions of thought and art is one of the most significant branches in the analysis of prose and poetic texts, and also one of the major discussions in literary criticism. Com Full Text
        The comparison of the attitudes of the poets and writers of different countries on the major evolutions of thought and art is one of the most significant branches in the analysis of prose and poetic texts, and also one of the major discussions in literary criticism. Comparative literature shows us the interaction of thoughts, literature and culture among two or even more nations; while it also reveals to what extent a culture, or thought of an individual person, or rather a nation, has been developed and influenced the world. Anyhow, this branch of literary criticism is among the most important debates and discussions in the “cross-cultural” studies too, and can even be considered as one of its major principles. Among the Bosnian poets, scholars, and writers, Fuzi Mostari enjoys a special and unique position, while he was deeply influenced by Rumi in a variety of aspects. This research was prepared through a documental and referential method, studying the valid and reliable sources and documents. A thorough study and research made it clear that Fuzi was indeed seriously influenced by Rumi in the basic principles, grounds, methods and even the devices used for discussing the concept and characteristics of “perfect human”. Manuscript Document
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        4 - Analysis of Approaches used in Researches on Nezami’s Books in the Persian Literary Books (1921- 2004)
        خورشيد  نوروزي غلامحسين  غلامحسين‌زاده ابوالقاسم  رادفر
        The present research criticizes and surveys the process of researches made on Nezami’s works from different aspects and in a variety of fields including analysis, rewriting, text explanation, bibliography, finding verses, correlation and writing with a particular select Full Text
        The present research criticizes and surveys the process of researches made on Nezami’s works from different aspects and in a variety of fields including analysis, rewriting, text explanation, bibliography, finding verses, correlation and writing with a particular selection in mind. In brief, the approach used in researches made on Nezami, through the edit and compile of his life story and beliefs and general ideas all within a traditional approach, is changed into two fields; criticism and analysis of Nezami’s works in a modern style, and rewriting the poetries in the Panj-Ganj (five treasures). In the domain of criticism and analysis, the poetic verses of Khosro va Shirin has the most potential for criticism and analysis due to these reasons: high usage of expressive and rhetorical arts, the function of story elements in a modern style, the reflection of folk culture, and the presence of many allusions, and pleasant proverbs. And Nezami’s Book of Poetries (the major book of poetry known as Divan), possesses the least research due to lack of a reliable corrected text. In the field of rewritings, Leili and Majnoon- a versified story- has earned the highest attention of the adapters of Nezami’s works due to having a simple story plot, a heavenly love story and its high fame among the public. Makhzanol-Asrar, has not been noticed much due to its complicated language, its mystical themes, and having many narratives and stories. Manuscript Document
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        5 - Mystical Contents on Saeb’s Sonnets
        حسين  فقيهي حسن  شاهی‌پور
        Saeb Tabrizi was a talented literary man who earned fame in his own time in India, Iran and mid-Asia. As a matter of fact, once Saeb created new methods in poetry, and simultaneously discussed precise moral, social, mystical and thoughtful points, he gained such honor a Full Text
        Saeb Tabrizi was a talented literary man who earned fame in his own time in India, Iran and mid-Asia. As a matter of fact, once Saeb created new methods in poetry, and simultaneously discussed precise moral, social, mystical and thoughtful points, he gained such honor and position. These features granted a particular grandeur and magnificence to his poetry; especially his sonnets. Saeb’s poetic style goes back to the methods used by the poets of the Safavi era; possessing rich, subtle and specific themes, thoughts and also rare visions and imaginations; specifically true in the case of his parables or equivalents. Many of the scholars and researchers have merely considered the subtle literary themes, in addition to the imaginative and abstract words in the survey and study of Saeb’s sonnets. Yet they have constantly neglected one point; his poetic verses enjoy pure and prominent mystical and Gnostic expressions. Actually Saeb has never been considered as a mystical poet faithful to Gnostic and mystical thoughts in the Safavi era. The writer of this paper intends to prove that Saeb’s poetry not only enjoys literary, social, thoughtful, and moral aspects, but also bears grand mystical themes. Saeb is actually a very modest poet whose sonnets are a manifestation of Gnostic thoughts and attitudes. Anyhow, no one regarded him as a mystical poet and he was always introduced as a poet following the Indian School innovating creative methods and offering rare and witty contents. Saeb himself never regarded himself mystical either. Manuscript Document
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        6 - The Psychological Analysis of Persian Parables and Words of Wisdom
        حسين  نوين
        The Persian parables and words of wisdom, which bear a collection of experiences, knowledge, and spiritual treasures, all count as our national treasuries and count as part of the historical and cultural prides of the Iranian nation. The study of such social-cultural em Full Text
        The Persian parables and words of wisdom, which bear a collection of experiences, knowledge, and spiritual treasures, all count as our national treasuries and count as part of the historical and cultural prides of the Iranian nation. The study of such social-cultural emblems and signs through a “literary psychological” approach, makes us familiar with the variety of characteristic features and its related inherited characteristics, while it also introduces us to social maturity, judgment and the manners in which the past generations raised their children. In the field of learning, these proverbs and words of wisdom offer us valuable knowledge about individual characteristics, personal differences, motivation and passion, reactions and also the social behaviors as an individual faces external events and incidents. Most of these psychological manifestations can be studied and even compared with the modern scientific theories. The Persian proverbs and words of wisdom often reflect such psychological behaviors; action and social behaviors, potential of imitation, psychological conflicts and contrasts like frustration and failure, anxiety and defensive abilities such as reactions, suppression, identification, paranoid in both the inner and outer aspects, making excuses and causing passion and motivation. Also in the field of actions and social behaviors, being in the same line with others, group aggression, and imitating others are some of the psychological kingpins mentioned in the words of these proverbs; which are interestingly enough manifested and highlighted within the Persian proverbs and sayings. Manuscript Document
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        7 - Difference between Irony and Proverb
        حسن  ذوالفقاري
        Irony and proverb are two totally different linguistic and literary topics; with distinct definitions and functions; yet constantly many of the ironies have been mentioned in books discussing proverbs. As a matter of fact, many researchers, proverb writers and compilers Full Text
        Irony and proverb are two totally different linguistic and literary topics; with distinct definitions and functions; yet constantly many of the ironies have been mentioned in books discussing proverbs. As a matter of fact, many researchers, proverb writers and compilers of dictionaries have intermingled these two without pointing to their actual differences. This paper intends to show the differences between irony and proverb through pragmatic and concrete criteria, even though making such a distinction is indeed a hard task. Initially, after discussing this case and referring to the background of this research, the domains of irony and proverb are defined and then their features are explained. In this manner making a comparison between the two becomes easier, while afterwards the differences and similarities are elaborated. Following these discussions, irony and proverb are better conveyed through referring to other figures of speech such as brevity, tropes, rhythm, the experimental aspects, the subordination axis etc. Finally distinctions among samples of ironies similar to proverbs are clarified by the mentioned criteria. So far there has never been an independent article on this topic and therefore this paper can be practically useful within the identification of proverbs in popular literature, in addition to literary discourse and expression. Manuscript Document
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        8 - Survey of Word Functions Contributing to the Comprehension of Sacred Texts (Study Case: Segil)
        سيده زهرا  مبلغ
        In the domain of studies related to the Holy Quran, a survey of the intermingled words usually faces two major difficulties. First; researchers face cases where the derivation and precise meaning of the words in their prior used cases is not clearly known. Therefore, th Full Text
        In the domain of studies related to the Holy Quran, a survey of the intermingled words usually faces two major difficulties. First; researchers face cases where the derivation and precise meaning of the words in their prior used cases is not clearly known. Therefore, the comprehension of verses including such words faces ambiguities and finding the actual root of these words becomes more difficult. And second; in the explanation of such words there are generally lots of interpretative narrations leading to referential, paraphrased, and in some rare instances, literal explanations. These group of narratives and versions do not contribute to the semantics of these words due to their non-linguistic features, but also understanding them and discovering their relation to the mentioned interpretative and paraphrased instances demands knowing the precise and actual meaning of the regarding word. In this situation, if we regard these narratives alongside the verses of Quran, including the contributing words as part of the sacred texts, the actual comprehension of them within the field of linguistics becomes related to the root and the meaning of the contributing words. Such studies on the root and meaning of the contributing words can take place following two processes: 1. the correspondence of root and the meaning of the word according to the text and textual implications in the Quran. 2. The justification and expression of the words’ linguistic courses from the origin language to Arabic. This essay intends to survey one of such words as a sample. The word “segil” is one of these contributing and key words which has faced many derivations and a variety of interpretative narrations are provided for it. A precise comprehension of this word initially demands the analysis and criticism of linguistics regarding the root; especially in the two mentioned criteria. Through an analysis of these derivations, it initially becomes clear that the most suitable suggested root is a Persian root. At the same time it is revealed that in what manners the acceptance of any root and its related suitable meaning influences our understanding of the interpretative narratives and whether we accept or reject them. Manuscript Document
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        9 - Words Appearing to be Coined; yet Original
        فردوس  آقاگلزاده حسين  داوري
        The study of derivations of coined words in the Persian language shows that actually some of these words were originally Persian words; appearing in other languages and then after finding an estranged form and aspect, once again reappeared in the Persian language. Study Full Text
        The study of derivations of coined words in the Persian language shows that actually some of these words were originally Persian words; appearing in other languages and then after finding an estranged form and aspect, once again reappeared in the Persian language. Studying the researches and the available works shows that this issue is mostly surveyed in the Arabic words; known as “moarab” words; yet this issue has not been of concern in other languages. Although this phenomenon is also a fact about the European vocabulary, and especially the most frequent French and English words used in the Persian language as well, still it has been mostly neglected not only in the general dictionaries; but also in the professional dictionaries which actually have discussed the coined European words too. This essay in brief points to some of the appearing coined European words in the Persian language which are originally Persian; based on some reliable European dictionaries in a documental and authoritative method. Then some of the deficiencies of the reliable Persian dictionaries has been mentioned and observed on the subject of word derivations. Manuscript Document
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        10 - A Review on the Statue of Etymology in Ahmad Fardid’s Methodology
        مهدي  فدائي مهرباني
        One of the most significant aspects, which should be of concern to a researcher in the analysis and survey of the literary texts, is the study of the text through etymology. Since each individual text earns its meaning within its own particular structure, and the contex Full Text
        One of the most significant aspects, which should be of concern to a researcher in the analysis and survey of the literary texts, is the study of the text through etymology. Since each individual text earns its meaning within its own particular structure, and the context of time and place, therefore the analysis of any text demands finding the relation between the word and its concept in the time and history it functions. The etymological method, which is actually the most basic method for understanding the meaning and concept of words in literary texts, helps us survey and study the reasonable relationship between the word and its concept in a particular time and place through a historical derivation of the meaning of words. As a result, etymology has a prominent place in literature. In Iran, seyyed Ahmad Fardid, has based the principles of his discussions on etymology and constantly considers the words existing in literature through etymology. This paper studies the position of etymology in Ahmad Fardid’s etymology and via reviewing the function of etymology in Fardid’s opinions, points to his mistakes in using this method. Manuscript Document
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        11 - The Dissonance of Theory and Written Word (Study and Criticism of “Sparrows Sense Heaven”)
        عليرضا  صدیقی
        Sparrows Sense Heaven, a novel, was written based on post-modernism teachings. Paying attention to chaos in narration and naturally the time of the story, super-story features, creating a false cycle using historical characters along with story characters and the presen Full Text
        Sparrows Sense Heaven, a novel, was written based on post-modernism teachings. Paying attention to chaos in narration and naturally the time of the story, super-story features, creating a false cycle using historical characters along with story characters and the presence of the writer within the story for distorting the borders between the reality and imagination are among the features and characteristics which categorize this work as a post-modern novel. Still, and at points, one can spot and observe issues which have no relation with the post-modernism teachings. The present essay first points to the post-modernism characteristics of the novel, and then criticizes the non-relevant elements. It also shows that using the methods related to this process- which claims one of its major duties to be revealing a character as a symbol and representative of the sacred defense war soldiers- is not in its right and due place; as the post-modernism attitude and insight towards man and life does not correspond with the existing attitude in this novel. Obviously despite the emphasis of all the characters on describing an ideal character in the novel, we are not even facing a multi-voiced novel either. Manuscript Document