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      • Open Access Article

        1 - The Process of Changes in meaning of the Word ‘Adab’ With Focus on the First Three Centuries after Islam
        اسماعيل  آذر
        “Adab” in tradition of the pre-Islamic Arabic culture was a word for good manners and customs inherited through generations. Due to the importance of teaching and training, the term applied to all branches of knowledge, except divinities, but the word Ta’dib (teaching ‘ More
        “Adab” in tradition of the pre-Islamic Arabic culture was a word for good manners and customs inherited through generations. Due to the importance of teaching and training, the term applied to all branches of knowledge, except divinities, but the word Ta’dib (teaching ‘Adab’/ good manners) was considered synonymous with teaching. So it went after Islam. Arabs’ contacts with other nations, especially during the first three centuries, caused the extension of the term’s significance so that it included all sciences, crafts, and sports. In this period, ‘Adab’ meant witty, innovative and subtle points. A learned witty person was referred to as ‘Adib’, i.e. a man of ‘Adab’. By the end of the third century, the term was commonly used for word study. In the fifth and sixth centuries it referred to inflection, syntax and rhetoric. Changes in connotations of the term ‘Adab’ was linked with the social history of nations. In Farsi language, it means courtesy and good manner; it also is a word for literature. Manuscript Document
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        2 - Unknown Works as Sources of Some Ideas In Kashf-ol-Mahjub
        ایمان  منسوب بصیری
        Kashf-ol-Mahjub of Hujwiri is one of the most authoritative ancient sources of the mysticism in Persian literature. So it might be useful in searching for the unknown sources influential in forming Persian-Islamic mysticism, which have mostly been used by the author wit More
        Kashf-ol-Mahjub of Hujwiri is one of the most authoritative ancient sources of the mysticism in Persian literature. So it might be useful in searching for the unknown sources influential in forming Persian-Islamic mysticism, which have mostly been used by the author without mentioning them since during the translation movement, mainly from Greek into Arabic, the exact titles or authors of most translated works were ignored, and remained unknown for Muslim writers. This was because, traditionally, ancient authors rarely mentioned the source of their citation. This resulted in the fact that some considered the second author the true owner of the quotation. In this article, introducing the sources of some phrases used in this book, we have tried to show the common sources in forming Islamic and Christian mysticism and to investigate their traces in Kashf-ol-Mahjub. Clearly, it might be the case that association of ideas has developed common thoughts between these two cultures. It is hard to render every similar idea to adaptation, or a direct influence of one on the other. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - A Structural Survey of Kin Combat in the Poems of ‘Rostam-o-Sohrab’, ’Borzu Nameh’, ’Jahangir Nameh’
        Ahmad  Khatami علی  جهانشاهی افشار
        Despite the existence of numerous works and hero-epics in Persian literature, it is noteworthy that they all have similar structures and consist of limited elements. Of course this is not a new subject. The structuralists like Levi Strauss, Vladimir Yakovlevich Propp, a More
        Despite the existence of numerous works and hero-epics in Persian literature, it is noteworthy that they all have similar structures and consist of limited elements. Of course this is not a new subject. The structuralists like Levi Strauss, Vladimir Yakovlevich Propp, and Frazer, have already discussed it. The present article studies ‘kin combat’ in the poems of: ‘Rostam and Sohrab’,’Borzunameh’,’Jahangirnameh’, based on a structural approach. According to findings of the research, the common fixed elements of these works are as follows: accidental visit of the hero to a foreign land, his accidental meeting with a daughter in a foreign land , his marriage abroad, hero’s leaving his wife, giving her a token , birth of an extraordinary baby, child’s departure to his father’s land, assistance of the father’s enemies’ to him, deception, defeating father’s vanguard army by child, father being called by the king to fight the child, asking each other’s names, triple combats, child introducing himself to father. Manuscript Document
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        4 - The Portraite of Hasank-e-Vazir In Literary and Historic Texts of Ghaznavid Era
        Esmaeel Shafgh سمیرا  جهان رمضان
        Hasank-e-Vazir is an eminent figure in Persian history and literature. In prose and poems of the Ghaznavids era, there can find referrences to him. He had a multifarious personality and was influential politically, socially and culturally. This Article studies different More
        Hasank-e-Vazir is an eminent figure in Persian history and literature. In prose and poems of the Ghaznavids era, there can find referrences to him. He had a multifarious personality and was influential politically, socially and culturally. This Article studies different aspects of his social and political life. Hasanak’s position of ministry in the time of Mahmud Ghaznavi-his powerful supporter- resulted in removing many mamonit opprtunist from governmantal affairs. He was executed for being Ghermati because of the slanders from his courtier enemies and by explicit order of Abbassi caliph’s. He was a patriotic person in Ghaznavid era. When Iran was dominated by Turks, he tried to maintain Iranian culture, its national identity, and a kind of nationalism .They accused him of being Ghermati following his meeting Fattemi Caliph, and his insistance in protecting this identity. We must admit that he had a leaning toward this sect, since one of its goals was establishing Justic. Manuscript Document
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        5 - Analysis of Fictional Aspect of Mowlavi’s Quatrain
        یعقوب  زارع ندیکی
        To Use the element of fiction in small forms like quatrain is very difficult. However, among 2000 quatrains attributed to Mowlavi, 200 ones are of fictional form. It seems that the poet’s use of such a form was in line with his attempt to make complex mystical concepts More
        To Use the element of fiction in small forms like quatrain is very difficult. However, among 2000 quatrains attributed to Mowlavi, 200 ones are of fictional form. It seems that the poet’s use of such a form was in line with his attempt to make complex mystical concepts understood by his general audience. Analysis of fictional structure of the quatrains could help explore mysteries in these poems and tackle their difficulties. This may result in directing more attentions to those poems of Mowlavi that have already been less studied. The poet as an antagonist in the quatrains tries to give a linguistic form to the mystically indescribable scene of his meeting with the Beloved. Hence, the first person point of view is used in most quatrains. The quatrains are something between poems and traditional narrations. Their analysis seems difficult because of their surreal mood. The present research focuses on the elements of fiction, including point of view, plot, dialogue, setting, and character development. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Aesthetic Functions of Predisposition of Verb In Sa’di’s Sonnets
        سوسن  جبری  
        Syntactic structures somehow reflect our perception of outer and inner facts, and express the relations established by our minds among the things and concepts in terms of linguistic forms. Such a process is unconscious. Poets, however, employ the syntactic patterns to s More
        Syntactic structures somehow reflect our perception of outer and inner facts, and express the relations established by our minds among the things and concepts in terms of linguistic forms. Such a process is unconscious. Poets, however, employ the syntactic patterns to some degree consciously so that they would effectively express their thoughts and emotions. Predisposition of verb is a defamiliarized syntactic pattern whose functions here have been studied in Sa’di’s sonnets. Structure functions of this pattern are to create forceful musical effects, keeping sentences length short, extendibility, completing the meaning, and structural cohesion. Predisposition of verb has also semantic functions including meaning extension, emphasis, magnification, minimization, generalizing palace and time, brevity, interpretability, suspension and expectance, prominence of descriptions, movement and dynamism, emotional incitement, creating images and pleasure, semantic cohesion. Thus, predisposition of verb is considered as one of the reasons for the beauty of Sa’di’s sonnets which along his skillful use of other linguistic techniques make readers share in poet’s thought and emotions. Manuscript Document
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        7 - Contrastive Analysis of the Two Narratives of “Anahid” and “Kermanian Princess”
        جمشيد  مظاهري آرمان  ماناسريان
        The Iranian and the Armenian are two nations of rich folkloric heritage, which reminder of the rise and fall of their history. The objective of the present article is to introduce the features of form and content of “Anahid” and “Kermanian Princess”. Their contrast show More
        The Iranian and the Armenian are two nations of rich folkloric heritage, which reminder of the rise and fall of their history. The objective of the present article is to introduce the features of form and content of “Anahid” and “Kermanian Princess”. Their contrast shows that the two nations’ common grounds and motives was the main factor in their development. Clearly, one of these societies might have been the origin of the narratives. The research method is library based. Our main references for analysis of “Kermanian Princess” and “Anahid” were “Jame’-ol-Hekayat”, a manuscript of the late 10th H. and early 11th H., and the famous book of “Armanian National Narratives” by the well-known Armenian folklorist, Qazares Aqayan, respectively. In the present research, we have studied the content, structural, and folkloric features of narratives based on Vladimir Propps theory, cited in his “The Theory and History of Folklore”. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        8 - Analyses of Definitions of Parody
        محمدرضا  صدريان
        ‘Naqizeh’ (parody) in Old Persian literature was both in serious and humorous forms, and it was not confined to poetry, but has been used in prose, as well. The closest term in English to ‘Naqizeh’ is parody. Parody has different forms; however, such diversity is not su More
        ‘Naqizeh’ (parody) in Old Persian literature was both in serious and humorous forms, and it was not confined to poetry, but has been used in prose, as well. The closest term in English to ‘Naqizeh’ is parody. Parody has different forms; however, such diversity is not suggestive of lacking a thorough agreement on the genre. Based on Bakhtin’s theory of Dialogue, and Genette’s and Barthes’s views, the present article provides a definition of parody in English literature covering most cases. Accordingly, parody can be defined as a deliberate imitation or transformation of a socio-cultural product (including literary and non-literary texts, and discourse in its Bakhtinian broad sense) so that it will recreate its original subject in a playful, not necessarily ironic way. Manuscript Document