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      • Open Access Article

        1 - Picture and Character of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) the Greatest in Persian Mystical Prose
        عفت  نادری‌نژاد mostafa gorji
        One of the main themes in the literary works of the world, particularly mystical and ethical texts, is to put the prophet’s states in writing, as the results of his experience and mystical intuition. In fact, mysticism as an artistic approach towards religion leads to e More
        One of the main themes in the literary works of the world, particularly mystical and ethical texts, is to put the prophet’s states in writing, as the results of his experience and mystical intuition. In fact, mysticism as an artistic approach towards religion leads to esthetic and artistic discussions about religious issues such as prophecy. Meanwhile, mystic Persian prose texts, which are more profound than the related poetry and more focused on the prophecy of Mohammad (Pbuh) as well as his states and statements, have the possibility to may proceed on the matter of the prophecy, specifically the last prophet’s message from different views and aspects due to the cultural and linguistic reasons. The Gnostics tried to match, on the one hand, a range of themes with holy book and prophetic tradition in a subtle way. Through referring to them, on the other hand, they aimed to achieve some credits for their speech and accounts. This paper is intending to investigate about the position, situation and state of the last prophet in the fifteen most important gnostic prose texts from the early days up to the 8th century as well as studying on the similarities and differences of Mohammad’s tradition, his speech and behavior comparatively and historically due to lack of enough comprehensive related sources. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - The study of the Poetry world of Nizami by Jakobsen's Theory of Communication
        Zeynab Nowruzi
        Jakobsen’s theory of communication is based on three major as well as three secondary principles, totally six ones, including sender, receiver, message, context, code and channel respectively. This model could analyze poetry in terms of its rhetorical aspects, grammar, More
        Jakobsen’s theory of communication is based on three major as well as three secondary principles, totally six ones, including sender, receiver, message, context, code and channel respectively. This model could analyze poetry in terms of its rhetorical aspects, grammar, semantic and some other aspects as well. In this research, Nizami’s poems, which are worthy especially in terms of rhetoric science, is going to be examined based on Jacobson’s theory. Furthermore, it is focused on the poet’s high concerns about rhetoric principles and his vision about the relation of a poet with his/her addressees. Accordingly, in this fashion it possibly will be known that how an influential poet had looked at his/her own skill and its impact on the readers. Without considering the form and meaning of a poem as well as their functions in the interpretation of a text, this target issue could not be achieved. Since the presence of the addressee as well as the speaker’s attention to the addressee is observable in the Quinary of Nizami, an individual could make an inference that there is a mutual communication between them, that is, the addressee could make an effect on the poet as well. Finally, the six communication principles of Jakobson’s model are mentioned in the second part, while they have special literary and artistic functions. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Criticizing the wisdom in Shahnameh
        فریده  وجدانی
        This paper tries to demonstrate Ferdowsi`s concern toward the golden period of Iranian civilization in which wisdom was a distinctive factor through the application of a descriptive-analysis approach. Moreover, it aims to explain the significance of the wisdom in Irania More
        This paper tries to demonstrate Ferdowsi`s concern toward the golden period of Iranian civilization in which wisdom was a distinctive factor through the application of a descriptive-analysis approach. Moreover, it aims to explain the significance of the wisdom in Iranian ancient culture to which this poet belongs as well as the place of wisdom in Shiite religion of which he was one of its followers. None of these factors, however, have dissuaded him, the scholar who believed and accepted the wisdom by his own personal talent, from considering negative and indecent aspects of the wisdom. Hence, despite the popular belief, not only does not Shahnameh praise the wisdom but also talks about noxious wisdom and its problems. As a result, this research could remove the existed ambiguity in the reading of the fourth verse of Shahnameh`s introduction, under the title of “in praise of the wisdom”, and could attract the reader to pay attention to Ferdowsi’s point of view about criticizing the wisdom. It is necessary to point out that, in spite of seeking for the related sources, the author could not uncover any background which may cover the proposed reading of the aforementioned verse and also any related resource about “criticizing the wisdom in Shahnameh.” Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Selection of Intra-textual addressee in the constitutional poetry (Based on Social - Political Attitudes)
        mohsen zolfaghary طاهره  ميرهاشمي
        One of the best features of constitutional literature is making a number of modifications in the interlocutor’s domain. The present inquiry is to prove that any changes in this domain are not simply restrained to the addressees of extra-textual type but also including t More
        One of the best features of constitutional literature is making a number of modifications in the interlocutor’s domain. The present inquiry is to prove that any changes in this domain are not simply restrained to the addressees of extra-textual type but also including the intra-textual ones in the constitutional literature. The question is what was the role of the innovative political and social attitudes in the choosing one of the intra- or extra- types as well as the preference of any types of addressing style? To achieve to the suitable answer, the new attitudes of political - social constitutional era have been studied and divided in seven themes. Then, the effects of the mentioned subjects have investigated in the types of addressees (intra-textural) taken in the poetry works of some famous poets in the Constitutional period. As a result, in the constitutional revolution, a number of social-political changes leaded to the emergence of a new range of poetry addressees, so the style of addressing was modified at that time. However, the failure of the revolution caused the poets to turn back to their previous and accustomed style of addressing. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - The Poetic Word Selection of Gheisar Aminpour by Critical Discourse Analysis Approach
        پریسا  صالحی
        Each artist may picture his/her political, social and cultural attitude in a different way, so Gheisar Aminpour was not an exception. He was one of the early revolutionary poets, who had involved in a number of ideological and religious values and had a stable belief on More
        Each artist may picture his/her political, social and cultural attitude in a different way, so Gheisar Aminpour was not an exception. He was one of the early revolutionary poets, who had involved in a number of ideological and religious values and had a stable belief on revolution’s principles and public ideality, to the extent that his poetry world was conceivably produced through a certain profound ideology. The interaction between the poet, Aminpour, and the political and social transformation in his society could make any individual study his poetry world by discourse analysis approach. Since any language could be supposed as a mirror of the thought (words as the mirror of the meaning), and the words’ role as well as their selection may certainly be significant in the process of analysis, this research is specified to the study of word selection of Aminpour’s poems by critical discourse analysis. Furthermore, it has focused not only on the study of Aminpour’s poetry world in terms of historical, political and social renovation of his era but also on his words’ selection, studied here, on three descriptive, interpretive and explanatory levels. In conclusion, the hidden meaning of the words are supposed to be revealed by critical discourse analysis tools to illustrate, more or less, the ideological attitude of the poet. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - The Function of Tulip from Dictionary Sense to Symbolic Meaning
        محرم  رضایتی‌‌کيشه‌‌خاله فیروز  فاضلی اسماعیل  نقدی
        Symbol is a sign not only refers to its sense but also to some contents beyond its literal meaning. To be more exact about the symbols, they are cited into the dictionaries by their literal sense, not by their innovative content in the aesthetic domain of poetry. This More
        Symbol is a sign not only refers to its sense but also to some contents beyond its literal meaning. To be more exact about the symbols, they are cited into the dictionaries by their literal sense, not by their innovative content in the aesthetic domain of poetry. This paper aims to explain the contrast between the sense of the symbols in the dictionaries and their novel meaning in the poetry of different period of time in terms of the various styles. In this research, a short introduction about the symbols as well as a literature review about the herbal symbols in the both eastern and western cultures is going to be rendered from philosophical, psychological and mythologist point of views. Then, the significance of the symbolic meaning and function of the words is discussed, while the meaning of tulip and its metaphoric extension is determined to be mentioned based on Manouchehri, Saadi, Saib and Sepehri’s poetry due to their being representatives for different poetic styles, such as Khorasani, Iraqi, Indian and modern poetry. The purpose of this investigation is to illustrate the semantic evolution of a word from its bounded sense to its extended and symbolic function. What is more, it aims to be evidence for the literary and artistic capacities and possibilities which leads to the creation and extension of the word’s meaning. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - The Traces of Ideology in the Early Literary Works of Mahmoud Dowlatabadi
        قدرت الله  طاهری
        One of the greatest Iranian novelists is Mahmoud Dowlatabadi, who is celebrated enough in the literary society of Iran and to some extent in the world due to his creative works. He has also gone forward in his works step by step, like every other author. In fact, he has More
        One of the greatest Iranian novelists is Mahmoud Dowlatabadi, who is celebrated enough in the literary society of Iran and to some extent in the world due to his creative works. He has also gone forward in his works step by step, like every other author. In fact, he has been affected by various and continually renovating discourses of contemporary history of Iran in such a manner that a part of his works has been written in response to theses discourses. In this research, the direct and indirect impacts of ideology and common discourses on Dowlatabadi’s novelettes in 40th and 50th decades are studied in terms of their being between novel and short story. These works were promising with a great author regarding to the writing of Kelidar, Missing Soluch, Bygone Days of the Elderly, although they might have a range of weak points as well. Furthermore, in choosing the themes and the characters which he has created and developed through his novelette, he may have been influenced by the ideology and discourses of his own time without being conscious. Finally, the topics used in his novelettes as well as the characters are not in harmony with their roots and their local culture, that is, they are not created for the referred culture and the characters just speak in Persian and wear local cloths without having any other common root with the country they live. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        8 - A Framework for Studying the Epic Language
        اصغر  شهبازی مهدی  ملک‌ثابت
        One of the issues in modern criticism is the study of language of the literary works. The framework suggested for studying the epic language has focused on the reading of the language of epic poetry at different phonological and musical, morphological and syntactic, rhe More
        One of the issues in modern criticism is the study of language of the literary works. The framework suggested for studying the epic language has focused on the reading of the language of epic poetry at different phonological and musical, morphological and syntactic, rhetorical and literary as well as theatrical levels in order to describe the quality of literary type of epics in language. For this purpose, through the innovative critic theories, mainly formalism, and based on the standard epic language (Shah-nameh Ferdowsi), the framework has been suggested for the study of the epic language at different levels. Subsequently, the paper is going to clarify the necessary indicators and illustrate the quality of them in the epic language by applying a number of evidences from epic texts, in particular Shah-nameh Ferdowsi, in order to access two goals: not only achieving the indicators of epic language but also examining them in the epic poetry and finding how the poems after Ferdowsi were or were not successful in the application of the epic language. According to this framework, it has been shown that Bazel Mashhadi, for instance, has not been successful in his using of the epic language. Moreover, the epic poetry as well as its created images, in some different aspects such as rhythms, composition and coherence, has a range of deficits as well. Manuscript Document