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      • Open Access Article

        1 - A comparative study of the concept of moderation inthe advices of the sixth "Dinkard" and in Ferdowsi's "Shahnameh
        zahra delpazi mohammad behnamfar MOHAMMAD REZA RASHED MOHASSEL
        One of the basic concepts in Iranian thought is the principle of moderation in life affairs, which is clearly reflected in Pahlavi books and advice letters, especially in the sixth book of Dinkard, the most detailed advice letter in the Pahlavi language. In Ferdowsi's S Full Text
        One of the basic concepts in Iranian thought is the principle of moderation in life affairs, which is clearly reflected in Pahlavi books and advice letters, especially in the sixth book of Dinkard, the most detailed advice letter in the Pahlavi language. In Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, which is considered as the summary of pre-Islamic Iranian culture, moderation is one of the basic principles that has been emphasized in various advices.In this article, we have tried to represent the similarities of these two books on moderation in a comparative way and with a content analysis approach. The results show that the concept of moderation in the Sixth Dinkard and Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh are very close to one another. In both books, thr extremes of excessiveness are examples of evil, and the good that lies between them is a symbol of moderation. On the other hand, goodness equals goodwill, good thinking and good speech; Three important principles of Zoroastrian thought that are directly related to reason and guide people to a rational life based on moderation.There is also a close link between moderation and justice that evokes the concept of "asha" in Zoroastrian thought.It is noteworthy that the concept of moderation in the sixth Dinkard is more consistent with the recommendations of the historical part of the Shahnameh, especially poems related to the reign of Khosrow Anoshirvan, and sometimes the recommendations are quite similar which could be the result of the direct influence of the sixth Dinkard on Shahnameh or due tocommon sources for the two books. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Analysis of the reflection of "Sheikh Sanaan"story in some selected Persian novels
        sudabe farhadi mohsen hoseyni ali noori
        The story of "Sheikh Sanaan" is the story of the love of an oldholy man and his surrender to a girl of another faiththat finally leades to him questioning his own faith.This story is reflected in a considerable number of Persian novels, sometimes in the form of recreati Full Text
        The story of "Sheikh Sanaan" is the story of the love of an oldholy man and his surrender to a girl of another faiththat finally leades to him questioning his own faith.This story is reflected in a considerable number of Persian novels, sometimes in the form of recreation and sometimes in the form of rewriting.The aim of the present study is to show,compare and analyze the rewrites and recreations of Sheikh Sanaan's mystical story in Persian novel, based on these for novels: "Yakoliaa va tanhaayi-e ou", "Savushoun", " Toubaa va manaay- e shab" and "Rood-e Raavi". This study shows that, like the story of Sheikh Sanaan, helplessness in love is evident in all four novels; but the characters’ reaction to the realization of their infatuation is different in each story.The exaltation of the old man's character also occurs through love in all four narratives.There are also differences in the fate of the female beloved after the occurrence of love. Except for" Yakoliaa va tanhaayi-e ou ", in the other three stories, the woman is also saved. In addition to the divine motive - to cause each of the characters to fall in love - other external and internal motives can be consideredfor the tendency of female characters to this process.In the novels "Yakoliaa va tanhaayi-e ou " and " Rood-e Raavi ", the woman is an evil element who deliberately puts herself in the path of an ascetic man, while in the other two novels, her lover has voluntarily set foot on the path of love. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - The function of color as a symbol in mythologization and demythologization: a case-study of "Chaahaar Sandough", play written byBahramBeyzaie
        ali yarahmadi زهرا سیدیزدی hamid jafari gharyeh ali
        Myths reflect our ancestors' understanding of their surrounding phenomena. Many myths, in their evolution after re-reading and reproduction, have been usually compounded with the two main concepts of mythologizing and demythologizing. In Iran, one of the towering figure Full Text
        Myths reflect our ancestors' understanding of their surrounding phenomena. Many myths, in their evolution after re-reading and reproduction, have been usually compounded with the two main concepts of mythologizing and demythologizing. In Iran, one of the towering figures in this field is Bahram Beyzaie. One of his works is a play called "Chahar Sandough", in which he has constructed and addressed myths wich is not bound to any time or place. This study investigates the influence of the ancient myths of Iran as well as the role of Beyzai on the production of mythological elements with regard to the function of the color symbol in the text of the play. The research question deals with the role of the color symbol in the play "Chaahaar Sandough".The authors of this paper will also attempt to examine the manner of mythologization and demythologization in Beyzai’s text. The result of the research indicates that the Beyzai’s narrative, on the one hand, has a deep connection with the myths related to the geography of his place of residence, and and on the other hand, he tries to highlight the mythologization and demythologization in the play. Refusal to show the superiority of good over evil in the end of the play, the symbolic use of colors instead of the characters' names and the reversal of symbols, especially colors, are all signs of demythologization in "Chaahaar Sandough" play. In this play, like a myth, we face the story of creation. Of course, the story of creation that is confronted with changing. The devil (scarecrow) is created not by the will and power of God, but by imperfect beings (colors), as they themselves admit. This component is a sign of the Beyzai manipulation of myths. Manuscript Document
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        4 - Sociological analysis of Shamloo's and AbuMazi's poetry based on Henry Zalamansky's theory
        marjan aliakbarzade zehtab Hossen Yazdani
        Social developments have been reflected in Iranian and Lebanese literature since the beginning of the twentieth century in an especial way, and the poems of Ahmad Shamloo in contemporary Iranian literature and the poems of Abu Mazi in contemporary Lebanese literature ha Full Text
        Social developments have been reflected in Iranian and Lebanese literature since the beginning of the twentieth century in an especial way, and the poems of Ahmad Shamloo in contemporary Iranian literature and the poems of Abu Mazi in contemporary Lebanese literature have had special importance in terms of reflecting social developments.The present article aims to explain the reflections of social events in Shamloo and AbuMazi’s poetry based on the dominant content theory in Henri Zalamansky's sociology of literature with a descriptive-analytical approach based on the American School of Comparative Literature.The results of the research show that the contemporary social developments in Iran and Lebanon have a clear function in Shamloo and Abu Mazi's poetry and have created common themes in the poetry of these two Iranian and Lebanese poets.The two poets' response to the problems of their society - which, from Zalamansky's point of view, is reflected in various literary forms - is "the struggle for freedom". Shamloo depicts the struggle against the oppression of the Pahlavi regime and Abu Madi depicts the struggle against the oppression of the Ottoman empire.Concepts such as the hardships of immigration, patriotism, criticism of poverty and suffering of the people, complaining about the ruling tyranny, enlightenment and struggle against oppression, freedom-seeking and seeking justice are the social concepts of the poetry of these two poets. Manuscript Document
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        5 - Ideational dual constructions of hope and hopelessnessin relation to social developments in the novel"Yekoliaa va tanhaayi-e ou"
        nematollah hiranzade Shahnaz  Arsh Akmal
        Hope and hopelessness are the most important characteristics of humans, which are in close relationship with fortunes and misfortunes of life. There are numerous theories in different fields such as philosophy, ethics, psychology, social sciences, etc about this duo.H Full Text
        Hope and hopelessness are the most important characteristics of humans, which are in close relationship with fortunes and misfortunes of life. There are numerous theories in different fields such as philosophy, ethics, psychology, social sciences, etc about this duo.Hope and hopelessness are dialectical with each other and suffering as a representation of hopelessness is a background for the birth of hope.This dual has two individual and social dimensions that are directly related to each other.The individual is as a society; Thus, individual hope or hopelessness and even philosophical despair is often influenced by social status.Given the human is the main subject of the novel, the representation of hope or hopelessness in the novel can be investigated."Yekoliaa va tanhaayi-e ou" by Taghi Modarresi is one of the first allegorical novels after the 1953 coup d'état in Iran, which indirectly tries to represent the conditions of Iranian society.The present paper using descriptive-analytical method deals with the dual analysis of hope and hopelessness and its ideational constructions in this work; assuming that although the hopelessness of the novel is discourse, there is a kind of hope in it.Therefore, "Yekoliaa va tanhaayi-e ou" can be viewed from the hope’s perspective and not consider it as a mere reflection of despair and failure. Manuscript Document
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        6 - The Study of VaqVaqSahab Based on General Theory of Verbal Humor (Investigating on Target, Script Opposition and Logical Mechanism)
        Navid Firuzi Fatemeh Mozaffari
        In this article, one of the most important works of humor in the history of Persian literature Hedayat’sVaqVaqSahab is reviewed and analyzed based on the General Theory of Verbal Humor. This work has special features in all six Knowledge Resources, but the focus of this Full Text
        In this article, one of the most important works of humor in the history of Persian literature Hedayat’sVaqVaqSahab is reviewed and analyzed based on the General Theory of Verbal Humor. This work has special features in all six Knowledge Resources, but the focus of this study has been on the three variables of Target (T), Script Opposition (SO), and Logical Mechanism (LM). VaqVaqSahab contains the traits of humorous narrative texts; both in the final part of the joke (punch lines) and within the body of the text (jab lines). Moreover, thereaders’ expectation of targeting at out-group and showing solidarity with in- group (a common tool for creating humor)is violated in VaqVaqSahab. Two SOs of tradition/ modernity and the appearance/ realityare added to previously introduced SOs in this theory. Exaggeration, meta-humor (self-reflection), proximity, consequences, false analogy and inversion are some of the widely used LMs in this work. Manuscript Document