• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Architextual relations (longitudinal and Genre-related) in Poetic Iskandarnamehs
         
        Arcitextuality is one of the quintuple issues of transtextuality by Gerard Genette which analyzes genre-related relations and Arcitexuality in a piece of work and the genre it belongs to. This category is appropriate for the analysis of literary works which have undergo Full Text
        Arcitextuality is one of the quintuple issues of transtextuality by Gerard Genette which analyzes genre-related relations and Arcitexuality in a piece of work and the genre it belongs to. This category is appropriate for the analysis of literary works which have undergone changed from their initial type, due to social and ideational, and audiences’ expectations in a specific period of time. One kind of such works is "Iskandarnameh" which consists historical epopees, but has also features from other genres which change them to something more than just historical epopees. How such features can affect the epic nature of these works and how they are related to the title “Iskandarnameh” can be analyzed in these works. Therefore, the elements of these three genres are extracted, and the relationship between different lyrical and pedagogical genres, and epic architext was analyzed. The results reveal that the overlap of the genres in Iskandarnamehs after Ferdowsi and prominent features of pedagogical genre paved the way for a change in the title of these works to Kheradnameh (letter of thought/wisdom) although the epic aspect of these works has not been lost. So in this essay, arcitexuality of poetic Iskandarnameh( Ferdowsi, Nezami, Amirkhosrow) and the type and genre they belong to are analyzed in order to determine their textual relations and the transformations they have undergone. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - The investigation of mythological structure of the first fight of the Indo-Iranian Hero
               
        This study aims at analyzing the structure of narratives about the first battle of the three Iranian heroes Garshasb, Sam and Rostam to define the common structural pattern in them and compare it with the myth of Indra’s fight who was the Indo-Iranian god of war, with V Full Text
        This study aims at analyzing the structure of narratives about the first battle of the three Iranian heroes Garshasb, Sam and Rostam to define the common structural pattern in them and compare it with the myth of Indra’s fight who was the Indo-Iranian god of war, with Vitra, the evil god of drought. With this purpose, and using a structural analysis of myth, narrative segments of these heroes’ first battles will be defined and their mythemes will be compared. Then, it will be revealed how the structural patterns in these narrative are in consistent with Indra’s first and famous battle. The aforementioned battles take place in parallel with an event that is the young hero/god becomes his father’s successor by removing his authority. Thus, the result of the research suggests that there is an intertwined relationship between the fight of Indo-Iranian hero with dragon, and the elimination of the venerable status of the hero’s father. It seems that these two events are somehow the transformed forms of one another and each is the alternative for the other one. Here, there is one linking element that keeps the two sides of the equation connected like a chain, and it is the weapon of having a father, i.e. the symbol of father`s power to defeat the dragon and consequently denying the father’s authority. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - A Survey on Logical Layers of Reasoning in Allegories of Marzban nameh
          mohammad Khosravishakib  
        Ethical Allegory is a story in which the theme overcomes the image and the form of the story and the characters are just devices to communicate a predefined and ordinary message. Ethical stories in Marzbannameh are the exact instances of such allegories. In most stories Full Text
        Ethical Allegory is a story in which the theme overcomes the image and the form of the story and the characters are just devices to communicate a predefined and ordinary message. Ethical stories in Marzbannameh are the exact instances of such allegories. In most stories in Marzbannameh, Allegories consist of three logical kevels based on reasoning, and it is possible to draw the pattern ABA for all the allegories in Marzbannameh, i.e. Allegory in Marzbannameh is a movement which starts from point A, and moves to point B, and then it refers back again to point A. The structure of allegory in Marzbannameh is a recursive and closed one. This pattern proved to be effective in satisfying the reader, communicating the message, emphasizing and fixing the meaning, searching the sense, eliminating the delusion, and excluding neglect. This specific uniform pattern of allegory has become powerful through convincing and satisfying the readers. The structure of allegory will be analyzed in this article. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Recognizing the Women in “Safvat al- Safa”
        azar akbarzade ebrahimi  
        Safvat al-safa is one of the mystical books in the 8th century written by Ebn e Bazzaz about the characteristics of Sheikh Safi Ardabili. This book, written in late Mongol era, has been always considered as a historical document because it illustrates the features of My Full Text
        Safvat al-safa is one of the mystical books in the 8th century written by Ebn e Bazzaz about the characteristics of Sheikh Safi Ardabili. This book, written in late Mongol era, has been always considered as a historical document because it illustrates the features of Mysticism and Sufism in that era especially in the west of Iran. Discovering the identity of the characters in the book while some of which have not been studied so far, gives us more information about Mysticism before the advent of Safavid. By studying the book Safvat- al-safa, we figure out the effective role of women in this era. Some of them were mystics or disciples of sheikh Safi and some of them were prominent characters in that era due to their influence on the government and society, besides their mystic trends. In this research, after the introduction, by presenting examples from stories in Safvat al-safa, 15 women are introduced in two fields of mysticism and politics , and their roles in these fields are studied. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - An Analysis of Folkloric Elements in Moniro Ravanipour’s Stories (Ahl e Ghargh, Siria Siria, Sanghaye Sheytan, Kanizu)
         
        Folk beliefs, is a very important part of the culture and life in different cultures and societies. By knowing about different nation’s beliefs we can become familiar with their habits, manners, feelings, art and thoughts. Some folk beliefs are reflected in literature, Full Text
        Folk beliefs, is a very important part of the culture and life in different cultures and societies. By knowing about different nation’s beliefs we can become familiar with their habits, manners, feelings, art and thoughts. Some folk beliefs are reflected in literature, and folk literature has inspired lots of poets and writers. Moniro Ravanipour is one of the contemporary writers who has mentioned some of the folk beliefs and native and local cultural elements of people in south of Iran especially in an area called Jofreh ( her birth place). In this article these works have been analyzed to see how folkloric elements and folk culture were applied. Folk beliefs in these stories root in the environment they live in and their problems, pains and suffers. Presence of some imaginary creatures like Boosalmeh the ruller of the sea, red and blue mermaids is another feature of these stories. Folk beliefs, have key role in narration, characterization, and defining the setting in Ravanipour’s stories. She uses native and local symbols of her birth place to talk about the her issues and concerns, and to critisize some social and political issues. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - The concept of Towhid (monotheism) in Baha Walad’s Thoughts
         
        Kalam and mysticism are very important in Islamic sciences. Although they have different methodology and each introduces the religious topics in its own way, they share lots of subjects. Baha Walad, who is a sixth century mystic, is one of the mystics whose unique work, Full Text
        Kalam and mysticism are very important in Islamic sciences. Although they have different methodology and each introduces the religious topics in its own way, they share lots of subjects. Baha Walad, who is a sixth century mystic, is one of the mystics whose unique work, “Maaref” represents the only clues that help to know his scientific and spiritual character, and in this work in addition to presenting mystic thoughts, he has mentioned some beleifs and Kalami thoughts. Baha Walad following mystical method has introduced Kalami topics as a mystic and an Ashʿari scholar, and he paid attention to find solutions for religious problems regarding some principles like monotheism, names and attributes of God, theological determinism and free will, possibility of visiting god, multiplicity of religions,… . Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - Criticizing Misapplication of Theories:The role of misapplication of theories in creating false awareness
         
        Nowadays, the researches which are based upon one of the literary theories (Formalism, structuralism, narratology, deconstructionism …) have been very popular among researchers, and academic society. This increasing growth had and have been the subject of some critics t Full Text
        Nowadays, the researches which are based upon one of the literary theories (Formalism, structuralism, narratology, deconstructionism …) have been very popular among researchers, and academic society. This increasing growth had and have been the subject of some critics too. Each one of them for some reasons have criticized the unconditional application of these theories, and asked for critical and pathological review of these theories, and the articles and books which have been written based on them. The present article has also a critical and pathological perspective in reviewing the researches (articles) which have been written and published based on Mikhail Bakhtin’s ideas and works (logic of dialogue and intertextuality). The results show that most of these articles have fundamental and numerous weak points, but the main ones are as follows: neglecting the backgrounds and presuppositions based on which these theories have been formed, making mistake in choosing the theories (inter textuality instead of structuralism, intertextuality instead of criticizing the resources, logic of dialogue instead of genealogy), simplification, arbitrary relation between theory and text, prejudice and ignoring the facts. Manuscript Document