• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Critical Analysis of Radviani’s Literary Views in Tarjoman-Al-Balagheh
        مهدي  محبّتی
        As the first prose Persian book about critical literary and rhethoric Tarjoman-Al-Balagheh has a unique role in these debates and subjects and their analysis. Writing this book, Radviani became the leading in prose literary issues and entered common ideas and thoughts More
        As the first prose Persian book about critical literary and rhethoric Tarjoman-Al-Balagheh has a unique role in these debates and subjects and their analysis. Writing this book, Radviani became the leading in prose literary issues and entered common ideas and thoughts of poem aesthetics, which was mostly in Arabic language, in Persian language and Iranian culture thereby made those issues vernacular to some extent. While creating this work, he stepped an important pace to theorise Persian prose and make it scientific; prepared the ground for addressing these topics in a greater leisure; and made new wave among thinkers and literary commentators – including Rashid VatVat and his followers – and, through centuries exercised Literature scholars’ and friends’ mind and written. In addition to its prominent role in initiating and linking cultural and literary debates, this book presented many ideas and new opinions concerned to criticism, eloquence, and figures of speech; sometimes tended to practical and even structural criticism of thought and poem in those days and offered new and excellent notes to the learned. In addition to explain the position of Tarjoman-Al-balagheh in Iranian culture and literature – partly addressed by Ahmad Atash and mostly left out -, this article sought to explore Radviani’s thoughts and opinions about poem and its constituents in detail and construction and form and meaning in poem as well. While this book criticized as a whole and analyzed structurally and comparatively, Radviani’s origin, his view point, methods of analyzing literary figures and his defects and strength have been studied and criticized, too. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Gender Impact on Manner of Stating Request (a Research in the Field of Sociology of Language)
        ندا  هدايت
        This essay seeks to study the gender impact, as a social factor, on how direct is manner of stating request by men and women. To argue about gender impact on imperative speeches employment method, (e.g, request, order. And command), relevant data collected from 80 stude More
        This essay seeks to study the gender impact, as a social factor, on how direct is manner of stating request by men and women. To argue about gender impact on imperative speeches employment method, (e.g, request, order. And command), relevant data collected from 80 students in shiraz university. To do so, a questionnaire including 6 questions provided, each of which was explaining distinctive setting (circumstances). A half of respondents were boys and others were girls. Collected data during the research analyzed through several statistic process (Testing, and chie-square). The figures showed that women pay attention to manner of stating their request more than men. Given the results of these studies, one might say that women behave more formally and conservative in this type of act of speech. This may be attributed to regard of social deference in speech. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Generation Difference and Conflict in Saadi’s Works
        ناصر نیکوبخت حسن  شاهی‌پور
        Of human being concerns throughout the history, was generational relations, generation difference and conflict which have drawn social reformists’ attention, persistently. Social, political, economic developments and evolution of communities and particularly industriali More
        Of human being concerns throughout the history, was generational relations, generation difference and conflict which have drawn social reformists’ attention, persistently. Social, political, economic developments and evolution of communities and particularly industrialization, have had tangible impacts on behavioural norms of generations, that, given special requirement of youth, this behavioural difference have been proved in this generation more tangible and obvious. Saadi, during short history and anecdotes, pointing to some of these conflicts and differences, considered it natural and usual, though didn’t seek to address reasons and causes of this divide. Relying on moral teachings, he attempts to invite youth to follow the elders and use of their experiences. Defending social values and traditions, he prefers behavioural patterns of the aged. Subsequently, some Saadi’ advices and his recommendations to the youth and the aged summarized in this essay, and finally the readers will judge to what extent moral teachings belong to past didactic literature might help contemporary generations to repair generational divide. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Necessity of Revision for Foreign Compositions of Moeen’s Persian Dictionary
        دكتر محمود  فضيلت
        Moeen’s Persian dictionary first published from 1342 to 1352 in 6 volumes, and reprinted frequently up to now. The Master Moeen, collected this dictionary in response to part of students’ needs (requests). He have employed scientific method in three parts: words, foreig More
        Moeen’s Persian dictionary first published from 1342 to 1352 in 6 volumes, and reprinted frequently up to now. The Master Moeen, collected this dictionary in response to part of students’ needs (requests). He have employed scientific method in three parts: words, foreign compositions, and persons. The author noted to the names of orientalists and experts who cooperate in compilation of this book, in the first volume introduction. Given importance and republish of this book and extensive and frequently refering, the author points to some cases from “foreign composition’ for revision and edition in subsequent publishing. Noting to Moeen’s method in writing Persian dictionary, the author enumerates the leading of his lexicography. Foreign Composition in Persian dictionary includes Arabic, Turkish, and European words prevailed in Persian speaking and writing. Such compositions, often maintained their main features, since, such composition being limited grammatically to two groups: compositional and verbal the compilor don’t address grammatical features of foreign compositions and in this essay you never find it. Antecedent of critics of moeen’s dictionary returns to a few years after its publishing. For instance, we can point to Dr. Ali Ashraf Sadeghi’s article in journal of literature department of Tehran university. Set aside causes and reasons and type of errors and defects, this article with distinctive perspective tries to revise the moeen’s dictionary. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Naturalistic Novel (Nana), a Realistic Novel, (Lepere Goreiot); an Analytical Comparison
        عبدالله  حسن‌زاده ميرعلي
        Apparent similarity and difficult distinction between principles and rules of naturalism and realism, resulted in many mistakes for critics. So that sometimes naturalistic works introduced realistic works. In this essay principles and rules of these schools criticized More
        Apparent similarity and difficult distinction between principles and rules of naturalism and realism, resulted in many mistakes for critics. So that sometimes naturalistic works introduced realistic works. In this essay principles and rules of these schools criticized and analysed in prominent works of Emile zola (Nana) and Balzac (Le pere Goreiot). While persons of NaNa are ordinary and usual, each represents specific social stratum and the author don’t emphasize on type – making. But in Le pere Goreiot persones given special salience (type) though they selected from society. Criticism in naturalistic works considered as struggle with diseases targeting organic unitary of community. But in realistic works, the deepest origins of social conflicts are investigated. Although, scientific rules of naturalism allows to address any object, regardless of class, subjects of naturalistic works often include middle class and lower class. But the realist writer in his/her works mostly focuses on realities and labour class suffers, in spite of dramatizing both high class and lower class. Most of naturalistic novels ended sorrowfully and tragic and annoy readers. yet realistic works, in spite of their dramatic and tragic end, are not catastrophic to this extent. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Dignity of Science in Islamic World and its Reflection in Persian Literature
        مهدي  محقق
        Due to its intrinsic dignity, science has been taken seriously in Islamic world; it has been presented attractive, pleasant and instructive apophthegms about its Value and respect, and dignity of scientists. Partly, these excellent apophthegm found their ways in to mind More
        Due to its intrinsic dignity, science has been taken seriously in Islamic world; it has been presented attractive, pleasant and instructive apophthegms about its Value and respect, and dignity of scientists. Partly, these excellent apophthegm found their ways in to minds and speeches of literary scientists and sophisticated literary men and thereby beautiful verses and words in deference to seience and scientists created. This short essay addresses Islamic faith and beliefs of science dignity reflections in Persian literature. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - Music and Imagination in Pejman Bakhtyari’s Poem
        مريم‌  مشرف
        Housein Pejman Bakhtyari (1297-1353) one of the romantic poets has composed with regards to aesthetics models of Iranian ancient poem. According to our knowledge, old poem with its various forms sustained after contemporary modernisms, and dedicated almost prominent poe More
        Housein Pejman Bakhtyari (1297-1353) one of the romantic poets has composed with regards to aesthetics models of Iranian ancient poem. According to our knowledge, old poem with its various forms sustained after contemporary modernisms, and dedicated almost prominent poets to contemporary culture and art. Pejman Bakhtyari, is of the same grade poets like Radi Azarakhshi, Rahi Moayeri, Amiri firozkoohi, vahid Dastjerdy and Forouzanfar. He is one of contemporary poets whose poems have not been investigated in detail up to now. This essay explains and analyses music and imagination in his poems and concludes that among main factor of poem, (eg, language, music and imagination), music is salient in his works. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        8 - Look through Medical poems In Persian Literature
        علي  قضاوي حسن  شاهی‌پور
        Persian poets were conversant in literary sciences, but some were of scientists in other various sciences such as juris prudence, mysticism and philosophy, history and geography, medicine and astrology; and through applying these sciences, particularly medicine, gave an More
        Persian poets were conversant in literary sciences, but some were of scientists in other various sciences such as juris prudence, mysticism and philosophy, history and geography, medicine and astrology; and through applying these sciences, particularly medicine, gave an special spirit and fineness to their works. Group of these scientists although have not been physician, have had companionship with physicians and / or were informed of common methods in medical profession, so that its deep influences in their poems demonstrated properly. This article searches for effects of modern medicine in poems of such great poets as Ferdowsi, khaghani, Manouchehri and nezami Ganjavi; and compares with findings of modern medicine. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        9 - Another Approach to Music of Poem and its Relation to Subject, Imagination and Poetical Feelings
        پرند  فیاض‌منش
        Music is a component of poem and its constituent. Music highlights the speech and differentiates poem from prose. This article addresses this aspects of poem and connection between song of speech and other elements. To this end, firstly we define music and its sorts in More
        Music is a component of poem and its constituent. Music highlights the speech and differentiates poem from prose. This article addresses this aspects of poem and connection between song of speech and other elements. To this end, firstly we define music and its sorts in Persian poem, then the connection between music of poem and subject, imagination and feelings. This study shows that music of poem along side four division by Persian literary men, divides to three categories: external music (prosodic aspect of poem) side music (special song of harmony between ending words of half. Vers “Row and rhyme”) and medial music (different harmonies resulting from rhetorical communications and meaning relevances). But poem is an account of society, principles, faith, and poet’s thoughts; and music of poem is his/her language of heart and his/her feelings. Different styles of poetical music – that is, rhythm, rhyme and raw and words and vocable - are elements which transfer meaning, feeling and imagination of poet to audience and musical variety, in this regard, is an important factor in inducing subject and poetical feelings to others. Maintaining harmony and relations between poetry music and other elements, poet attempts to approach to main purpose of poem, that is, impressing notions and internal contains of poem. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        10 - THE BEGINNING OF PERSIAN MYSTICAL POEM
        Alireza Fouladi
        This article is surveying two theories about persian mystical poem. One is the evolutionist theory, that believes, emergence of this kind of poem is the result of the evolution of Ascetic poem and the other, is the cohersivist theory which believes that there is coheren More
        This article is surveying two theories about persian mystical poem. One is the evolutionist theory, that believes, emergence of this kind of poem is the result of the evolution of Ascetic poem and the other, is the cohersivist theory which believes that there is coherent background for emerging mystical poem. Studying the backgrounds of persian mystical poem within non-mystical one, mystical Arabic and Persian prose, Arabic and Persian mystical poem made this writing as a field of expressing the theory of cohersivists. This discussion with introducing some of beginners of this type of peom will be ended. Manuscript Document