• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Prototypicality in Transitive Structure of Persian Verbs
        Faeghe Shahhoseini
        The present article studies Prototype of transitive structure in Persian verbs. So far, transitivity has been studied from different aspects. However, in Persian language it has been studied limitedly from a cognitive perspective. The main objective of the present artic More
        The present article studies Prototype of transitive structure in Persian verbs. So far, transitivity has been studied from different aspects. However, in Persian language it has been studied limitedly from a cognitive perspective. The main objective of the present article is to get to a precise and clear definition of transitivity regarding Persian speakers’ cognition. To do so, the author defines prototype of transitive structure based on seven major criteria, and one minor criterion. According to the findings of the research, to define transitivity we have to consider both form and function. Transitivity can be defined on a continuum, ranging from prototypical transitive verbs to non-prototypical transitive verbs, and intransitive verbs. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - The comparative Study of Back Channel Response in Persian and English Telephone Conversation
        مهناز  آزادمنش شهلا  شریفی
        This research is aimed to study about back channel response in Persian and English telephone conversation comparatively in terms of measuring the frequency, type, function and position of it in the dialogue. The back channel response includes lexemes and phones such as More
        This research is aimed to study about back channel response in Persian and English telephone conversation comparatively in terms of measuring the frequency, type, function and position of it in the dialogue. The back channel response includes lexemes and phones such as “ya”, “really”, “Humm”, “mm”, … which are heard in the conversion repetitively in order to notify the speaker how his/her words are comprehended. In fact, the hearer reflects his/her position toward the speakers’ words through producing back channel response, as a result these signs have an impressive effect on the continuing the conversation. Despite the fact that back channel response exist in all the languages of the world, its function is different from one to another language. In general, the research data were extracted from a 300 minutes American English telephone conversation as well as 300 minutes Persian telephone conversation. The Persian data have received from Fars Dot telephone conversation database and took the permission from Gooyesh Pardaz Institute, while the English data have got from Vanarook research paper. The results of the study stand for a number of similarities and differences in frequency, function and position of back channel response in both English and Persian languages. Moreover, it is possible to illustrate how back channel response in Persian is more than English as they are 1691 and 1473 items respectively. The most frequent items in terms of their use were short back channel response, which were most likely represented in the end of the syntactic constituents. Furthermore, most of the back channel response items have an important effect on the comprehension process. However, there are more differences between the other forms and functions of back channel response in the Persian and English dialogues. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - The influence of Persian Culture and Literature on Arabic Literature Case Study: Amthal-Moulad
        وحید  سبزیان‌پور
        The objective of the present article is to show the influence of Khosravani Wisdom and Iranshahri’s thoughts on Arabic Literature. The subject does not seem new. What is new is our approach to it. The article claims that in addition to bold traces of Persian wisdoms in More
        The objective of the present article is to show the influence of Khosravani Wisdom and Iranshahri’s thoughts on Arabic Literature. The subject does not seem new. What is new is our approach to it. The article claims that in addition to bold traces of Persian wisdoms in Arabic Literature, most part of more than a thousand proverbs available in Arabic literature are of Persian origin. We have first introduced historical background facilitating the way to transfer of the proverbs into Arabic literature, and then we have traced back lots of Arabic proverbs to their roots to make sure of their origins. In addition, we have also referred to Dehkhoda’s Amthal-o-Hekam for common contents of Persian and Arabic proverbs. In some cases we have carried out critical study and analysis of some Persian literary texts, resulting to the fact that the influence of Persian wisdoms and thoughts on Arabic literature goes beyond the imaginations of not only the contemporary Arab scholars but also the Persian scholars. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Beihqi and Narration “Based on Historical Norms”
        ابراهیم  محمدی محمدحسن  الهی‌زاده
        Ancient history texts, including Behaqi’s History, are close to literature because of their narrative structure. Though historical in content, they considerably show characteristics of the language used in poetry. Post-modern scholars, like Hayden White and Paul Ricoeur More
        Ancient history texts, including Behaqi’s History, are close to literature because of their narrative structure. Though historical in content, they considerably show characteristics of the language used in poetry. Post-modern scholars, like Hayden White and Paul Ricoeur, make prominent another aspect of the essential links between historical and literary teats texts while stressing their narrative character. What seems worth more study is the type of narration in the both two text types. If we consider narration as the sequence of events, both literary and historical texts are narration based. However the rules of narration is different, and despite some similarities, there are fundamental differences in narrative modes. The present article studies Behaqi’s History using the theory of “Narrative History”, and narratology. Analyzing narration, we stress the fact that Behaqi’s History, as the title is indicative, is a text in the field of history, where there exist some poetic features, as well. So, poetic attractions of the text should not distract the reader from its historical bases. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Sadeq Hedayat’s Death Awareness: Psychological or Philosophical attitude?
        عليرضا  شاهيني
        Many critics believe that Hedayat drives characters of his fictions to death, and this is something arising from his death aware mentality and his pessimistic attitude to life. There are some problems with Critical studies of Hedayat’s stories. First, they see the works More
        Many critics believe that Hedayat drives characters of his fictions to death, and this is something arising from his death aware mentality and his pessimistic attitude to life. There are some problems with Critical studies of Hedayat’s stories. First, they see the works full of philosophical despair. Secondly, they treat the protagonists as mirroring the character of the author. However, delving in motives of Hedayat’s stories, one can be suspicious about philosophical treatment of death of the fictional characters. Hedayat is among the writers who have especial approach to reveal psychological aspects of the characters in narrative structure of his stories. According to Freud theory of instincts, human behavior was motivated by two biologically energized instincts, respectively termed Eros, the life instinct, and Thanatos, the death instinct. When the life instinct decays as a result of failure, the death instinct takes the place of it. The research tries to study the stories in this framework. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Morphology of the story of Mehr -va- Māh
        عليرضا  نبی‌لو
        In order to focus on the analysis of the Mehr -o- Māh story in this paper, a number of issues, literature reviews and different versions of narratives as well as fiction structures and its elements are rendered. Moreover, it is considered to review some related topics s More
        In order to focus on the analysis of the Mehr -o- Māh story in this paper, a number of issues, literature reviews and different versions of narratives as well as fiction structures and its elements are rendered. Moreover, it is considered to review some related topics such as language, character, narrator, the point of view, the structure chain and plot, theme, setting and time. As a result, the whole book considered as a long story with numerous characters promoting the events. The structure of the sentences and its style of writing are uncomplicated and technical simultaneously. Furthermore, 45 characters with usually proper names play a role in the narrative, while most of them are magicians and fairies (24.30 %) or women and girls (22.2 %). The narrator, additionally, is unclear and vague, so the story is narrated in the third person point of view. The paper aims to study the story based on the 31 acts which mentioned by Propp and also considering his classification in 6 stages, including preparation, complication, transference, struggle, return, recognition. At the end, it is worth mentioning to know that narrative pattern of the story is as following: α γ φ δ β ↑ ε λ F A C λ E G G K D H F C B E B O λ H K M Ex φ Pr U K E Pr O T L K W QN I Rs ↓ Moreover, the characters could be classified in 7 distinct groups of act, which extraordinary events as the main elements of the story play a great role. In more details, the time of the narrative is unclear; some of the locations are realistic, while some of them virtual, such as China, India, Mecca, Sham, Egypt and Morocco. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - The Relation of Hafez to Ash'arite and Determinism Schools
        محمد  مشهدی نوش‌آبادی
        One of the signifying issues about poetry and thought of Hafez, a Persian poet, is determinism and fatalism. Although a number of researchers have studied this topic from different aspects, it is still, like so many other issues about Hafez, seriously debatable. A part More
        One of the signifying issues about poetry and thought of Hafez, a Persian poet, is determinism and fatalism. Although a number of researchers have studied this topic from different aspects, it is still, like so many other issues about Hafez, seriously debatable. A part of scholars have stressed on determinism in his poetry, even if they don’t reach to any common point about his being Ash’ari. Most of them have believed in not his being a part of these two schools. In this paper, firstly, a quick review of different standpoints about Hafez’s thought world will put forward. Then the discussion goes through the dissension of Ash’arite and Mu'tazilah schools, which based on the human’s intended or chosen’s act, considering that every deterministic belief is not attributed to Ash’arite or any kind of theological approach. Finally, through focusing on the freethinking behavior of Hafez toward the determinism, based on various examples from his poetry book, it is rendered that these reneges of poems are composed in reply to his reproachers who had charged him with the profligacy and love. At the end, the viewpoint of researchers who believed in determinism of Hafez is negotiated. As a result, most of Hafez’s poems which are apparently in harmony with determinism school, considered as his disputing with the reproachers as well as criticizing Ash’arite and Mu'tazilah in terms of ignoring freedom of choice. To come to the point, being a part of determinism and Ash’rite school not only could not explain Hafez as he is but also is against his disagreement with these schools. Manuscript Document