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      • Open Access Article

        1 - Eponym (Nambakhsh): Eponym (Nambakhsh): A kind of rhetoric in Persian language
        hosein ghorbanpoor elmira taslimi
        The eponym is a noun and an adjective that has become a concept. In fact, the concept has become one with the object, and nowis used in as aconcept that has been accepted by the collective subconscious.Unlike Metaphor, eponym is not used in literary language; rather it Full Text
        The eponym is a noun and an adjective that has become a concept. In fact, the concept has become one with the object, and nowis used in as aconcept that has been accepted by the collective subconscious.Unlike Metaphor, eponym is not used in literary language; rather it is mostly used in common language; and contrary to metaphor, which requires a symmetrical understanding, eponym is rooted in the unconscious group of a particular people or culture.In fact, eponyms are stereotyped metaphors which understanding them depends on cultural similarity. Such words have been widely used in language; but in Persian, so far no research has been done on this genre. This research seeks to introduce eponym as a genre and also to classify such nouns based on their semantic domain and type of its usage.The method of this research has been qualitative and its data has been done based on descriptive-analytical method and using library study tools. The result of this division is putting eponyms in eight different groups: religious and non-religious, animals and people, positive and negative, politics and place. On the other hand, they have been put in six categories: names of persons, animals, place, accessories related to religious and mythical elders, and in the meanings of virtual worlds and adjective. The most frequent eponyms in Persian are special nouns that have become adjectives such as Iblis and the Antichrist. Some eponyms are animals that have become adjectivessuch as carnivores and hyenas. Some place names have also become adjectives; like Sahrayeh Karbala & Resurrection. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - The Prammaticalization of the Verb "goftan" In New Persian
        Mehrdad Meshkinfam Elham Izadi
        One of the language change processes is pragmaticalization, and among the products of this process are discourse markers.Discourse markers are the language elements that make the discourse homogeneous and do not allow discourse to deviate from its original path.This pap Full Text
        One of the language change processes is pragmaticalization, and among the products of this process are discourse markers.Discourse markers are the language elements that make the discourse homogeneous and do not allow discourse to deviate from its original path.This paper aims to investigate the pragmmaticalization of the verb "goftan" (i.e. sayying) in New Persian. In order to investigate more exactly, we have divided New Persian into two separate periods: Early New Persian and Modern Persian.In early New Persian, the verb "goftan" functioned as the main lexical verb in the meanings of "to say" and "to name”, expressed the concept of inductive modality and also participated in impersonal constructions.In Modern Persian, in addition to conserve previous functions, this linguistic element is evolved into a discourse marker through pragmmaticalization.In this new function, "goftan" also appears in two other forms as "migam" and "begu" and functions as initiating discourse, changing the topic, and referring to new information. The token frequency of "migam" is more than "begu".The research data has been extracted from the books written in Early New Persian language, internet, and TV movies.Because discourse markers are mostly found in the spoken variety, the TV movies have been chosen in order to investigate functions of the verb "goftan" as a discourse marker in Modern Persian. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Discursive function of "Zindiq": Pahlavi literature and Arabic and Persian Texts of
        Alireza Heydari Mojtaba Monshizadeh Faezeh Farazandehpour
        In this article, using the approaches related to "critical discourse analysis" (CDA), the function of the word "Zindiq" (heretic) over time has been studied.Apparently, this word was used for the first time in Sassanid Pahlavi literature in the inscriptions of Cartier ( Full Text
        In this article, using the approaches related to "critical discourse analysis" (CDA), the function of the word "Zindiq" (heretic) over time has been studied.Apparently, this word was used for the first time in Sassanid Pahlavi literature in the inscriptions of Cartier (Zoroastrian dogmatic priest) about the Manicheans who were oppressed and killed by this person.The word "Zindiq" was then used in Pahlavi, Arabic, and Persian literature to drive out and suppress ideological dissent.According to Foucault's classification of "exclusion" methods (in 1970), presumably, the derivation of "zand" to the Avestan root of zan- (to know) in "Zindiq" had been hidden by Zoroastrian priests in Sassanid period.In this study, it becomes clear that according to Fairclough (1995)'s three-layered model in discourse analysis and "intertextuality", relying on the texts of a period, the discourse function of words such as "Zindiq" is not understood or it is hardly possible to understand the discursive functions of this word in the texts of one area.It will also become clear that over time, Zandik's rejection of the discourse will expand, and that the leaders of any discourse, along with their followers, will often expel their opponents on Zandik charges in order to gain hegemony over their ideology.According to Laclau and Mouffe's (1985) theory of discourse, from during the juridical discourse of Sasanian period and later on, the new meanings were added to this word (Zindiq) by different "elements". Consequently, the function and meaning of "Zindiq" changed from “interpreter of Avesta” to innovator (heretic), sinister, magician, etc.Thus, the implications of lexical jurisprudence are useless without CDA for understanding the meaning and function of "Zindiq". Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Analysis of God's active image in agriculture from myth to mysticism
        mozhgan zarrinfekr maryam salehinia
        Images of God are the result of the efforts of the human mind to understand better the mysterious and sacred existence.One of the most prominent images of God in the infinite range of human imagination is the "God of the Farmer" from whom we can call God's action in agr Full Text
        Images of God are the result of the efforts of the human mind to understand better the mysterious and sacred existence.One of the most prominent images of God in the infinite range of human imagination is the "God of the Farmer" from whom we can call God's action in agriculture. This image, inside of the images of the realm of herbages makes the aspect of God's action in creation objective and tangible.God's activity in agriculture in texts that contain images for God, despite its dynamic presence, has undergone several changes. The present article has been reviewed this image in mythology, sacred texts and mysticism with a descriptive-analytical method and with the approach of metaphorical analysis. In mythology, the creation of God in the work of the goddess of fertility and the god of plant death is explained in the form of the rotation of seasons. In the sacred texts, this action is assigned to Ahuramazda, Yahweh, the God of the Father and Allah, in accordance with the context of each text, and in mysticism, this action is depicted in a diverse and comprehensive way with human focus.The results of the study showed; this image has passed a rotational journey from nature outside to nature within man and from objective nature to nature. In addition, the expansion of God's authority and dominion over the world and man is one of the things that can be seen in the transformation of this image. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - The Mythical Foundation of the Conceptual Metaphor of Death in Rumi's Masnavi
        Alireza Shabanlu
        According to the Islamic mysticism, the death is the main path to the truth recognition and connection to it.Death frees the soul from the cage of the body and gives meaning to life and defines his/her purpose; Hence, death is the fruit of life.This kind of thought is a Full Text
        According to the Islamic mysticism, the death is the main path to the truth recognition and connection to it.Death frees the soul from the cage of the body and gives meaning to life and defines his/her purpose; Hence, death is the fruit of life.This kind of thought is also in some myths. Rumi is one of the mystics who has used mythological ideas in drawing the image of death.The current paper explored the death metaphors in Rumi's Masnavi using the conceptual metaphor method and theory to figure out the relationship between Rumi's thought about death and mythical ideas as well as the role of mythical beliefs in defining the path of mystical conduct.We found that Rumi, like most mystics, has recognized and dealt (especially the death of immortality) in the context of the "journey back and up to the Principle / God / Truth" and through this, has opened the path of mystical conduct and has introduced death as a method of the truth recognition and mysticism attainment with shown its key role in the process of receiving divine knowledge and mystical conduct.The basis of this metaphor is the principle of the duality of soul and body in the belief in the duality of the ancient Iranians, which spread in the region of West Asia and North Africa and southern Europe until it emerged from Plato's "The theory of Forms". Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - From mind to lived experience; Comparative Analysis in the Early and Late Poetry of Qeysar Aminpour
        seyedreza shakeri mohammad kamalizadeh
        From a philosophical and theoretical point of view, two intellectual approaches can be identified and analyzed in Qeysar Aminpour poetry; Early Poetry and Late Poetry.The aim of this research is to show the fulfillment of formation of these two types in relation to cont Full Text
        From a philosophical and theoretical point of view, two intellectual approaches can be identified and analyzed in Qeysar Aminpour poetry; Early Poetry and Late Poetry.The aim of this research is to show the fulfillment of formation of these two types in relation to contextual developments and to explain the differences between the two from the perspective of intellectual and spiritual evolution of the poet.In earlier poetry, the poet is influenced by intellectual, political, and environmental conditions, and the focus of poetry production and the poet's mind is mainly religious and revolutionary ideas and beliefs that produce poems with specific themes.In Aminpour's recent poetry, lived experience takes the place of the mind and poems are produced with the focus and content of human situations in life.The theoretical basis of this research is the concept of lived experience in Wilhelm Deltay's theory of humanities, which has been used by literary scholars to study the poems of many poets.The findings of this study show that Qeysar Aminpour is a poet influenced by the social, intellectual and political developments of his society and larger common human world, and goes through the evolutionary process in poetry and achieves a new language and world of poetry dimensions. Manuscript Document