• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Archetypical Reviewing and Criticizing of Aeneid in Virgil
        khadijeh bahrami rahnama
        One of the significant events of literary criticism is archetypical criticism. Archetypes include potential and elementary images and ideas that are in collective unconscious of human. In Jung’s view, these elements are product of collective experience that repeated in Full Text
        One of the significant events of literary criticism is archetypical criticism. Archetypes include potential and elementary images and ideas that are in collective unconscious of human. In Jung’s view, these elements are product of collective experience that repeated in all generations’ lives. Aeneid is a mythical poem that is rooted in Romans collective unconscious. This work can be analyzed from different approaches like archetypical criticism. Archetypes such as “hero”, “animus”, “Old Wise”, and “shade” and their manner of manifest on every character of story are analyzed as the main issue of this research. Results show that Aene is hero archetype who passes successfully three stages of searching, debuting, scapegoat to reach individuality stage which is selfhood, the ultimate of individuality process. Archetype of Animus is overhang on “Didon” and “Camille” psyche. Venus is Old Wise archetype who helped the hero all over the poem and finally, fights against “Tornus” who is his internal shade and then dominates him. Research methodology is content analysis in framework of literary criticism. Therefore, the aim of current research is archetypical criticism of Aeneid by Virgil based on Jung ideas. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Analysis of Adam and Eve Fall in the Third Section of Kashf-al Asrar and Od-at-al Abrar by Meybudi1
        اکبر  لطفی مهدی  ماحوزی
        Meybudi interpreted Quranic verses in the Third Section of Kashf-al Asrar and proposes some understandings from Quranic verses, concepts and issues based on his mystical taste; however, his interpretations are not about all Quranic verses, and the interpreter, Meybudi Full Text
        Meybudi interpreted Quranic verses in the Third Section of Kashf-al Asrar and proposes some understandings from Quranic verses, concepts and issues based on his mystical taste; however, his interpretations are not about all Quranic verses, and the interpreter, Meybudi, dealt with Verses which are open to these kinds of interpretations based on different textual and extra-textual contexts. One of the issues that attracted interpretive views to itself is story of “the Fall” of Adam and Eve. In Meybudi’s view, it seems that “the Fall” is a degradation of sublime status of existence which is realized and occurred in form of manifestation and non-manifestation and its base is about human and his caliphate on earth. In this study, along with explanation of different meanings of Adam and Eve Fall in different cultures, these issues are reviewed based on Kashf-al Asrar: meanings and examples of Adam and Eve Fall, evolution of Adam and Eve Fall and its variants, aims and purposes of Adam and Eve Fall, difference between cursed and generous Adam and Eve Fall, and refusal of gender, how of Adam Fall, evil and enjoyment of evil from the Fall, and so on. Results show that Adam and Eve Fall in Meybudi’s view was designed to test human which was occurred in form of manifestation and non-manifestation, gender had no role in it and its purpose was to help human reach God’s caliphate on earth. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - The Effect of Symbolism of Expression Methods of Nima Yushij Thoughts
        حاتم  قادری A m محمد  کمالی‌زاده
        We study in this article some political approaches of European Symbolist poets and reread Nima’s method of interaction with his time intellectual Currents to show that Nima’s political trends and his relation with intellectual ideologies and discourses of his time has c Full Text
        We study in this article some political approaches of European Symbolist poets and reread Nima’s method of interaction with his time intellectual Currents to show that Nima’s political trends and his relation with intellectual ideologies and discourses of his time has close similarity with dominant approaches found in thought and action of European Symbolists; in other words, Nima’s advocacy of symbolism- not the only factor- has a lot effect on his political trends and decisions. Among these, hegemonic intellectual discourses of his time and his method of facing with these discourses also had determinative role in promoting these trends. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Analytic Review of Black Romanticism in Nosrat Rahmani Compositions
        مینو  محمدی نجمه  نظری
        Political, social, and cultural situation of every era has direct effects on poets’ views. Black and pessimist Romantic literature as a literary genre has emerged in Iran’s society after one decade of mobility and tension in different social and political areas; it was Full Text
        Political, social, and cultural situation of every era has direct effects on poets’ views. Black and pessimist Romantic literature as a literary genre has emerged in Iran’s society after one decade of mobility and tension in different social and political areas; it was indeed a kind of Protest against destructive consequences of coup d'etat 1332 (1953) which suddenly sunk many social and cultural activities in complete stagnation. Poets, in this era, expressed their Protests in various kinds, sometimes semi-obvious and sometimes indirectly, though there were severe censorship and strangulation. Symbolism was one the invisible methods of fighting against censorship; however, black and romantic literature was an obvious and hidden and somehow negative battle against political blockage that reflected poet’s rebellion and Protest focusing on destructive consequences caused by coup d'etat in political, social and cultural areas. It is tried in this article to review some reasons of emergence of this literary genre and its reflection in “Nosrat Rahmani” poet as a poet of Black Poetry. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Quintuple Areas of Regional-writing in Contemporary Story Literature of Iran
        رضا  صادقی شهپر
        Dividing authors and their works based on their geographical location and birthplace is appropriate and true only when their similar features connect them to each other, otherwise naming a school and style of its authors’ works only based on their regional trend toward Full Text
        Dividing authors and their works based on their geographical location and birthplace is appropriate and true only when their similar features connect them to each other, otherwise naming a school and style of its authors’ works only based on their regional trend toward an area is meaningless and un-justifiable. Regional stories have similar and harmonic features and are accepted in connection with a special region and appropriate with birthplaces of authors and effects that they get from a special region. It is these effects from regional environment and its reflection in stories that caused some sort of similarities among works of some authors living in a same region and simultaneously caused some sort of differences with works of authors from other regions. Author in this article, after expressing the history of schooling in Iran’s contemporary story writing and their criticisms, proposes a new, precise and systematic division of regional story-writing based on definite and defined criteria and defines five area or branch of regional story-writing based on this criteria: north, south, Khorasan, west (Kerman Shah) and Azerbaijan in Iran’s contemporary story writing from constitutional era to Islamic Revolution. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Criticism of politicization in Contemporary Novels (Case Study of a Political Novel: My Homeland’s Secrets)1
        ُseyyed ali seraj mostafa gorji
        Political Novel is one the fiction types of Persian literature with special features that is distinct from other movements of contemporary story writing. Due to its uniqueness of these kinds of stories, and their close interaction with society and social and political e Full Text
        Political Novel is one the fiction types of Persian literature with special features that is distinct from other movements of contemporary story writing. Due to its uniqueness of these kinds of stories, and their close interaction with society and social and political events, critical discourse analysis (CDA) method is an appropriate approach in analyzing this kind of fiction. This approach focuses on form and meaning and in analyzing literary texts, it focuses also on different cultural, social, and political factors that are effective in text formation; it is for this reason that CDA theoreticians maintain that we do not deal just with lexical elements forming sentences as the main criteria for explaining meaning, that is co-text, but also beyond that, factors outside of text, i.e. situational, cultural, social and so on context. Norman Fairclough is a CDA theoretician who reviews texts in three levels, descriptive, interpretive and expressive. This method of analyzing is so useful in discovering and expressing intellectual ideas of authors and their political and social approaches. Theoretical framework of this research is based on Fairclough CDA. Research method is descriptive-analytic and it tries, based on CDA, to reflect on and reread “My Homeland's Secrets” Novel by Reza Barahini which is one the most brilliant political novels after Islamic Revolution, and reviews and analyzes main political events in Iran focusing on psychological issues like personalities and brilliant elements in it like title semiotics, images and descriptions, story’s characters (agent, passive and narrator), type of narration, design and dominant theme of story and … . Results show that this novel, as a literary text, is in interaction with Fairclough method of Discoursal action and social action and dominant hegemony and has close affinities with hegemonic discourse of three decade ago. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - Tradition and Modernity in “Neighbors” Novel
        مهبود  فاضلی فاطمه سادات  حسيني
        The relation of society and literature is one of the issues under constant research in literary studies. The relation of tradition and modernity as a social matter has been manifested in literary works too. The manifestations of these elements of these two (focusing on Full Text
        The relation of society and literature is one of the issues under constant research in literary studies. The relation of tradition and modernity as a social matter has been manifested in literary works too. The manifestations of these elements of these two (focusing on Anthony Giddens ideas) in “Neighbors” novel and expressing the relation of elements of tradition and modernity and reflection of other authors’ ideas about these two are main purposes of this article. Anthony Giddens believes that traditions are present even in the most modern societies. Research Results show that traditional indexes of culture and society are observed more than modern elements in these contexts in the story; due to this reason, although economical and political elements are mostly modern, they are dominated by tradition and fail to verify themselves. Mahmood has a negative view of most traditions especially cultural customs; however he does not ignore criticizing modern elements too. Manuscript Document