• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Artistic Quotation in Hafez' Poetry
        عليرضا  فولادي
        Despite all the efforts made by the eloquent figures in the recognition of literary techniques, some of them are still unknown. This article introduces one of such technique known as "the artistic quotation" and elaborates the details in Hafez' poetry. What is an artis Full Text
        Despite all the efforts made by the eloquent figures in the recognition of literary techniques, some of them are still unknown. This article introduces one of such technique known as "the artistic quotation" and elaborates the details in Hafez' poetry. What is an artistic quotation, how does its artistic aspect occur and what are its types? This article intends to respond to the mentioned questions.Our method is the descriptive method through the structuralism approach.The overall studies lead us to conclude that Hafez' artistic quotations have generally passed a balanced path both in narration and the poetic process; which is due to his tendency for moderation. And in these two-sided aspects considering the present situation, they have been united with several elements such as; the narrator, atmosphere, time and place setting, description, character, dialogue, incident, suspense, and the ornaments of the figures of speech like; metonymy, simile, style of finding the proper equivalent, metaphore, personification, paradox, irony, pun, phonemes, harmony of adjectives, equivocation, identification, convenance, contrast and many other figures of speech to be mentioned. Also examples of this technique cover a variety of divisions in his great poetry book depending on the basis of the definition in the details. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - The Influence of the Fifth Century Social and Political Evolutions on Abu-Saeed Abol-kheir's Behavior and Speech
        طاهره  خوشحال عبدالناصر  نظرياني
        At the beginning of the fifth century, Khorasan suffered from insecurity, poverty and disorder as it was the major center of the political revolutions. Also the instability of the kings and princes led to the oppression of peoples' rights and the promotion of hypocrisy Full Text
        At the beginning of the fifth century, Khorasan suffered from insecurity, poverty and disorder as it was the major center of the political revolutions. Also the instability of the kings and princes led to the oppression of peoples' rights and the promotion of hypocrisy and flattery as a culture. In this situation most of the scientists and the official learned men were either pawns in the hands of the authority and the political authorities, or chose to isolate themselves and seal their lips in mere silence and surrender. But Abu-Saeed Abol-Kheir, a social mystic, reacted properly against pretension and seduction by relying on a humorous and affectionate behavior and speech. At the same time he was quite aware of what others thought; counted as a clue for the guidance of people and simultaneously supporting the oppressed and devastated ones. This article intends to show the relation and accordance between the events and incidents of those days and Abu-Saeed's reactions and behaviors. In this relation we have also tried to reveal the extent he was influenced by the social and political events and issues of the time as well. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - The Analysis of Siavash's Story Based on Yung's Theories
        ابراهيم  اقبالي حسين  قمري گيوي حسن  شاهی‌پور
        The deep researches of Carl Gustav Yung in the field of myths and his findings has turned into a basic working material for many of the critics in the study and survey of literary works. In the present research, Ferdowsi's Shah-Nameh, especially the story of Siavash- as Full Text
        The deep researches of Carl Gustav Yung in the field of myths and his findings has turned into a basic working material for many of the critics in the study and survey of literary works. In the present research, Ferdowsi's Shah-Nameh, especially the story of Siavash- as a great series of the Iranian historical and mythological narratives in ancient times- was studied. This story was evaluated within the framework of Yung's process of individuality, and also the archetypes of "self", the hero, shadow, persona, the old wise man, oneself, reactions, and the function of the heroes and the characters in Siavash's story. Then the manifestation of each single archetype was defined as a major issue in this research. At the same time the presence of archetypes such as Anima, Animus, Mother, Mandela, Manna and Rebirth are also of notice in here. The method of research in this study is based on the analysis of content. The results of this study show that Afrasiab stands for the archetype of shadow, while Rustam stands for the archetype of hero, and Afrasiab's interpreter expresses the archetype of the old wise man. Also the archetype of the self is manifested in Keykhosrow's character. Still the ascent of Keykhosrow and Siavash's death are examples of death and rebirth in the Shah-Nameh. The repetition of these themes in the three mythological, heroic and historical sections of the Shah-Nameh show the harmony and integration among these three parts in the method of expressing the archetypes, while it expresses this point that the major theme of the archetypes appears constantly; yet in various shapes and forms. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Anvari’s Point of View about the Origin of Poetry and the Poet’s Social-class Identity
        مهدي  محبّتی
        The description of poetry and stating the poet's position among the social classes are the two major features in Anvari's literary point of view. Anvari succeeded to suggest and point to new and solid attitudes and views on the analysis of poetry and also the poet's c Full Text
        The description of poetry and stating the poet's position among the social classes are the two major features in Anvari's literary point of view. Anvari succeeded to suggest and point to new and solid attitudes and views on the analysis of poetry and also the poet's class-identity due to enjoying a rational education and being quite familiar with the versified word and its fields, in addition to the pure artistic experiences he himself earned during his life by creating poetry. He founded one of the most significant sources for the sociology of poetry and the poetics in the Persian Literature by both categorizing the poets' classes and the analysis of the poet's role and position in the chain of the social needs. He then compared these productions, or better to say in this field 'the creations', with the products of the other social classes. He also studied the reasons leading to the creation of a variety of poems in the poet's mentality and mind. Anvari himself created a few long and prominent poems in this specific field of study for the first time and expressed the first descriptive-rational attitudes on the nature and essence of poetry and its various kinds. This article reflects Anvari's precise and clear thoughts and ideas about poetry and the poet's class-identity. Manuscript Document
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        5 - Narrative Ghazal (Sonnet) and its Origin in the Persian Poetry
        احمدرضا  منصوری
        Ghazal (sonnet) is one of the major forms in the Persian Poetry. Still, the foundation, development, and its various types constantly invite and encourage the researchers towards further studies and contemplation. This research initially offers a new definition on poet Full Text
        Ghazal (sonnet) is one of the major forms in the Persian Poetry. Still, the foundation, development, and its various types constantly invite and encourage the researchers towards further studies and contemplation. This research initially offers a new definition on poetry and the narrative Ghazal. Then its various types are recognized and divided within two approaches; the formal-structuralism and the contextual-conceptual approach which are the old literary divisions and forms. The other part of the research is devoted to the origin of the Persian Ghazal and the varieties of opinions are discussed. According to the findings of this research which are supported by some of the Persian poems, the origin of the narrative Ghazal can be surveyed with two attitudes; both in lyrical and also the sonneteer's field of approach. Its different types can be divided on the basis of structure (with the three genres including the narrative, the dialogue, and description in mind), and the content (with social, historical, mystical-cognitive, elegy, trip journals, life stories and etc which are among the subdivisions of the structure of narrative).At the end, the positive points and functions of the narrative Ghazal (such as the poetry's cohesive structure, finding the contents easy to understand, making a better communication with the audience, dramatization, and gaining pleasure and joy) have been pointed to. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Reflection of the Constitutional Era in Nasim-e Shomal and Ahmad Shouqi's Poetry
        GHsem Sahrai علي  نظري
        The people's awakening and awareness, seeking liberty and justice, wanting rules, fighting against oppression, patriotism, and in other words demanding the Constitutional situation were among the most important events in contemporary Iran and some of the other neighbori Full Text
        The people's awakening and awareness, seeking liberty and justice, wanting rules, fighting against oppression, patriotism, and in other words demanding the Constitutional situation were among the most important events in contemporary Iran and some of the other neighboring countries. The writers of this article intend to reveal this common theme in the poetry of two contemporary poets; Nasim Shomal- the Iranian poet and Ahmad Shoqi; the Egyptian one. Though Nasim Shomal and Ahmad Shoqi lived in two non-neighbor countries with different languages; there are many common concepts and themes related to the Constitution observed in their poetry which show the common cultural and social aspects in both the Iranian and the Egyptian nations. They expect the Constitutional and the parliament system to have deserving, functional and knowing rulers; a system which provides the people's welfare and progress and happiness and blocks any kind of oppression and tyranny. But unfortunately the Constitutional system does not develop in the living era of these two mentioned poets as it is expected and fails. The anti-constitutionals gain power over the parliament and the other governmental positions and therefore the country is threatened by chaos and turmoil. For these reasons both of the poets encourage and call people to protect their countries. Manuscript Document
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        7 - Mirzadeh Eshqi and the Modernization Issue
        علي  محمدي
        In the chaotic and overexcited era of the Constitutional Period, Mirzadeh Eshqi was a live and vibrant poet; fortunate enough to think about modernization. Within the versified worldview of Eshqi one can observe all the aspects of the phenomenon now known as "modernizat Full Text
        In the chaotic and overexcited era of the Constitutional Period, Mirzadeh Eshqi was a live and vibrant poet; fortunate enough to think about modernization. Within the versified worldview of Eshqi one can observe all the aspects of the phenomenon now known as "modernization". The feature most of notice in the structure of thought and approach of Eshqi is his paradoxical and heterogeneous attitude towards the different dimensions of modernity. Eshqi's ideas constantly flow within a black and white whirlpool approach; in other words there are constant changes. Therefore such an entirety-seeking thinking would be full of paradoxes. In Eshqi's worldview, there is not any share for wisdom and rationality; where this atmosphere mostly represents a picture of destruction, seeking revolution and carnage. Eshqi is so nervous and vehement natured that once he views an instance, he tends towards exaggeration and observes all human beings the same; regardless of whether they are good or bad. In overall, Eshqi's attitude towards the Iranian individuals is filled with paradox and contrasts. This article surveys the concept of modernization in Eshqi's poetry. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        8 - Four Birds of Prophet Ibraham in Interpretative and Gnostic Texts
        faride davoudi moghadam
        Interpreters and gnosticists said much about implications of Ayeh 260, soureh Baghareh, Accordingly, God indicates to prophet of Ibraham raising from the dead, through killing and raising from the dead of four birds. From this story which apply to prove physical resurre Full Text
        Interpreters and gnosticists said much about implications of Ayeh 260, soureh Baghareh, Accordingly, God indicates to prophet of Ibraham raising from the dead, through killing and raising from the dead of four birds. From this story which apply to prove physical resurrection and raise from the dead, gnosticists interpret spiritually and some times give it a completely symbolic and allegory. Like these understandings can be seen in non mystic interpretive texts. In this research, this story extracted from various interpretive and mystic texts and their similarities and difference and different view points (gnostic and non gnostic interpreters) analyzed. According to this research, some Quran’s interpreter affected by prose text of sufia. Also, this project indicates mystics’ interpreter and poems ability, creativity and attempts in the way of fostering (nurturing) different meanings inspired by common Quran stories and adding excellent notes and beautiful accounts to these stories and signe. Manuscript Document