• Home
  • maryam آخسسثهده
  • Published Issues

    • List of Articles maryam آخسسثهده

      • Open Access Article

        1 - Ceremonial Journey of Esfandiyar in Shah-name
        نسرین  شکیبی ممتاز maryam آخسسثهده
        “The process of individuality” with centrality of considerable amount of Jungian archetypes makes the double-based unification of psyche - self awareness and non-self awareness – possible in the frame of symbolic acts and along the ceremonial journey for the hero. In fa Full Text
        “The process of individuality” with centrality of considerable amount of Jungian archetypes makes the double-based unification of psyche - self awareness and non-self awareness – possible in the frame of symbolic acts and along the ceremonial journey for the hero. In fact, by passing the different layers of “shade” and attempting to modify its deterrent force which has roots in the negative psyche features of hero, he is in a new step visiting “anima”; therefore, knowing his feminine direction of his psyche, hero achieves great capability in knowing “wise old” who is the real durable truth of existence. Knowing the status of this wise old, which he himself is one of the most archaic kind of ancient human psyche, and obeying his decrees passes the path of individuality of hero to a conclusion which has significant psychological features. “Rebirth” which is equal to knowing “self” and integrating with it in ceremonial symbology, carries hero’s psychological life in a determined and advancing sample toward its ultimate goal. In excavation of narrative of Esfandiyar’s life who is one the main characteristics of Ferdowsi’ Shah-Name, we can come into the psychological deep structure of story by passing the epic surface structure which shows the hero’s journey to reach a special goal from the aspect of knowing self, meaning to discover individuality; therefore, passing “seven steps” which are regarded as the seven steps of passing shade, hero can kill Arjasb Tourani and saved his sisters and achieving victory in this step, he gets ready in next journey to combat with Rustam as the wise old. In the last step of his individuality and losing his eyes, understands the right of old wise and with a ceremonial death achieves a rebirth. Esfandiyar’s rebirth has symbolic and ceremonial aspects depositing his son – Bahman. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - An Archetypal Critic of a Sonnet by Rumi
        maryam آخسسثهده
        Archetypal criticism is one of the modern theories in literary criticism and based on psychological criticism; mainly founded on the theories of the famous Swedish psychologist; Carl Gustav Yung. This type of criticism surveys and studies the archetypes used in a work, Full Text
        Archetypal criticism is one of the modern theories in literary criticism and based on psychological criticism; mainly founded on the theories of the famous Swedish psychologist; Carl Gustav Yung. This type of criticism surveys and studies the archetypes used in a work, showing how the poet or writer’s mind has absorbed these archetypes, which are actually the outcome of mankind’s repetitive experiences and left behind in the collective unconsciousness of humankind, finally showing them symbolically. The purpose of this essay is to survey one of Rumi’s sonnets through archetypal criticism. The writer makes an attempt to explain this criticism in brief first, then show how Rumi’s conscious spirit has succeeded to ponder and penetrate deeply into the truths of universe and understand the imagery instances; using them unconsciously in his own sonnets. The archetypal content dominant in the atmosphere of this sonnet, starting with: Morde Bodam Zende shodam, Gerye Bodam, Khande shodam Dolat e Eshgh Amad o man, dolat e Payande shodam is the archetype of death and rebirth. When the theory of death and rebirth is discussed, there are allusions to Bible and the Holy Quran. According to Yung, rebirth is one of the most fundamental beliefs derived from coordination between mankind and the nature’s cycle. In this sonnet, in addition to the theory of rebirth, the archetypes of wise old, hero, and other archetypal instances such as yearning and divine journey are also seen. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - The Function of Myth in the Postcolonial Discourse of Persian Novels (Analyzing Savushun, Secrets of My Native Land, The Drowned)
        Nafiseh Moradi maryam آخسسثهده
        A number of contemporary Iranian writers in the pre and post Islamic Revolution period focused on explaining the western colonialism and the resistance to it as the theme in their novels. These writers tried to react to the political and cultural influences of the Weste Full Text
        A number of contemporary Iranian writers in the pre and post Islamic Revolution period focused on explaining the western colonialism and the resistance to it as the theme in their novels. These writers tried to react to the political and cultural influences of the Western colonialism and imperialism through the effective use of myths in post colonial discourse. Simin Daneshvar, Jalal Ale Ahmad, Reza Barahani, Shahrnush Parsipur, Moniru Ravanipur, and Ghulam Hussein Saʽedi are among the post colonial writers. In this inquiry, the use of myth will be analyzed in three novels, namely, Savushun (Daneshvar,1970) Secrets of My Native Land (Reza Barahani,1982) and The Drowned (Ravanipur, 1990). The results of this study show that the use of political and cultural myths created by novelists based on Iranian ancient myths has an essential role in the formation of the postcolonial discourse and representation of colonial period in Iran’s history. The writers of these three novels succeeded in depicting their abhorrence of Iran’s occupation by western colonizers, and they could well show the invaders’ face and the Iranians’ resistance. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - A Study on the Functions of Contradiction and Conflict in the Aesthetic Analysis of Attar’s Sonnets Imagery Based on Jorjani’s Views
        عطیه مشاهری فرد حسینعلی قبادی maryam آخسسثهده علیرضا  نیکویی
        Abdolghaher Jorjani is one of the well known rhetoricians and syntacticians of fifth century who is best known for his “construction theory” and “the meaning of meaning”. Two of his great books named Asrar al-balaghah and Dala'il al-I'jaz explain aesthetic issues of the Full Text
        Abdolghaher Jorjani is one of the well known rhetoricians and syntacticians of fifth century who is best known for his “construction theory” and “the meaning of meaning”. Two of his great books named Asrar al-balaghah and Dala'il al-I'jaz explain aesthetic issues of the discourse. What he has expressed about these imageries can also be useful for studying other literary devices. Although he has referred to simile, allegory, metaphor, and metonymy to explain the effective elements of aesthetics, the method he has used to analyze the aesthetic value of the text, and the effective factors he presented for aesthetic analysis of the imageries can also be useful in studying other figures of speech. Using a descriptive-analytical approach, and according to Jorjani’s views, this study aims at analyzing the function of contradiction and conflict in the aesthetic analysis of Attar’s sonnets. This study attempts to show that what Jorjani had considered to be important aesthetic factors can be found in different representations of the elements of contradiction and conflict (e.g. antonyms, different types of paradox, etc.). Based on the findings, contradiction is one of the effective elements of literariness of the text. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - An Analysis of Jung’s Process of Individuation in Nezami’s “Eskandarnameh”
        maryam آخسسثهده  
        The two epopees, Sharafnameh (The Letter of Dignity) and Eqhbalnameh (The Letter of Luck) by Hakim Nezani Ganjavi, which are known as Eskandarnameh, are stories about the travels and wars of Alexander of Macedon. In the creation of these epopees, Nezami employs not only Full Text
        The two epopees, Sharafnameh (The Letter of Dignity) and Eqhbalnameh (The Letter of Luck) by Hakim Nezani Ganjavi, which are known as Eskandarnameh, are stories about the travels and wars of Alexander of Macedon. In the creation of these epopees, Nezami employs not only the historical events, but also the myths and legends, and has created a new pattern. In these two epopees, Alexander is not that famous conqueror in the history, but he is a legendary and prophet-like character whom all the earthly and unearthly forces helped through the vicissitudes of his journeys, and throughout the process of developing individuality, and the path of self- awareness. In Sharafnameh, Alexander is a sage who departed on a journey to gain wisdom. However, in Eqbalnameh he experiences an inner journey as a prophet. Psychological analysis of these two epopees indicates that this young king, encounters the elements of unconsciousness, such as: Shadow, Anima, and the Wise old man in his journeys. Eventually Alexander achieves selfhood and the sublime truth of existence. This article aims at analyzing these archetypes based on Jung’s views. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - The Pattern of the History of Knowledge and the Resurrection of Meaning in Shahaboddin Yahya Sohrewardi's Thought
        Zahra Mahouzi  Ghobadi  Pakatchi maryam آخسسثهده
        The history of knowledge that is considered by Sohrewardi in Hikmat-Al-Ishraq follows a pattern that has been formulated before him in the Sufi texts. This historical pattern which is based on a hadith attributed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) foretells the future o Full Text
        The history of knowledge that is considered by Sohrewardi in Hikmat-Al-Ishraq follows a pattern that has been formulated before him in the Sufi texts. This historical pattern which is based on a hadith attributed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) foretells the future of esoteric knowledge of Islam after the Prophet. As to the fate of divine knowledge on earth, this pattern defines three stages: the era of knowledge by presence, the era of assenting meaning to the word, and the period in which metaphor is converted to symbol. Sohrewardi refers to this historical pattern and completes it by presenting a certain definition of the Divine Hakim and his role in interpreting the mysteries of the mystics. By this action, he makes a commentary on the history of knowledge. The fourth stage that Sohrewardi adds to this historical pattern is the resurrection stage of meaning to its truth, and it can be defined only by reference to the totality of Sohrewardi's intellectual system. The present article attempts to extract this historical pattern from the Sufi texts and then explains Sohrewardi's role in completing it. Manuscript Document