• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Selection, Acceptance and Features of Ambassador (Safir) in Shahnameh of Firdausi
          فریده  وجدانی
        “Ambassador” has a special status in the absolute concept of intermediacy in the Great Book of Hakim-e Tous, Shahnameh of Firdausi. The article reviewed the matter of ambassadorship in allover Shahname and attempted to determine ambiguous and clear viewpoints using a de More
        “Ambassador” has a special status in the absolute concept of intermediacy in the Great Book of Hakim-e Tous, Shahnameh of Firdausi. The article reviewed the matter of ambassadorship in allover Shahname and attempted to determine ambiguous and clear viewpoints using a descriptive-analytic method. It explored ambiguous stands i.e. hidden angles and neglected aspects of serious issue of ambassadorship and found new findings about the triple pillars (Sender, Ambassador, Receiver). The article highlighted less studied points regarding clear viewpoints of ambassadorship and showed that the ambassador is not always just a messenger; and since the great part of sender success depends on the selection of a competent ambassador, there were great emphasis on the moralities, and the sympathy of ambassador with the message itself and even his seeming beauty and organs’ symmetry. The findings showed that the status, position and authority limitations of ambassadors were not the same. In addition to routine duties, expert ambassadors had been delegated to make non-determined decision upon their own discretion and condition appropriateness. Ambassadors also applied punctilios based on common customs and personal skills to satisfy the needs of sender which are worth exploring. Reviewing all instances of ambassadors’ acceptance in Shahnameh of Firdausi showed that though there were some special habitudes for accepting the ambassador, the receiver were not forced to follow all habitudes and acceptance orders in all situations, but following orders and habitudes depended on variables like their friendship or hostility relations, the status of sender, the status of ambassador, the message content and so on, and regarding abovementioned issues, the receiver would select some method to encounter with ambassadors, which we will deal with in detail. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Revision of Shams-e Tabrizi Sayings from Linguistics and Modern Criticism Perspective
        manzar soltani Nafiseh Moradi
        There is just one work left from Shams-e Al-Din- Muhammad-e Tabrizi, great mystic of 7th Century Hegira, which is collected and written by his students from his sayings and they called it “Maqalate (the Articles of) Shams-e Tabrizi”. Since his students granted his sayin More
        There is just one work left from Shams-e Al-Din- Muhammad-e Tabrizi, great mystic of 7th Century Hegira, which is collected and written by his students from his sayings and they called it “Maqalate (the Articles of) Shams-e Tabrizi”. Since his students granted his sayings a specific holiness, they exactly had written whatever he said in most cases and this caused the language of articles to be close to speech language. Reviewing text of articles and indeed reviewing the speech method of Shams, we may come to this conclusion that he had used syntactic and linguistic deconstruction and extra-linguistic facilities to create a unique work that expresses a global and human thought and is not limited within time and space; so that he himself says that its audiences may be born many years later. Shams’ techniques and methods to communicate with his audience and reconstruction of his intuitive mystic experiences are currently under hot discussions by literary critics, linguists and modern hermeneutic scholars. This article reviews the text of Maqalat and compares Shams’ comments, particularly on lexicon and meaning, and analyzed syntactic and linguistic deconstructions of Maqalat’s text and contrasts them with comments of contemporary linguists to explain this issue that Shams was an antecessor thinker and mystic in Mystical Literature who created a work beyond time and space with his literary and unique genius which can be readout in new environment of literary sciences and involves many linguistic theories. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Plant Holiness Displays in Iranian Fairy Tales (Based on Dictionary of Iranian Myths: Ali Ashraf Darvishian And Reza Khandan Mahabadi
        فرزانه  مظفريان
        Fairy Tales are a part of popular tales that are full of great and wonderment events. We can unlock thoughts and beliefs which are rooted in human unconscious and have a sublime status in nations’ cultures by reflecting on these tales. Herbal myths are among these belie More
        Fairy Tales are a part of popular tales that are full of great and wonderment events. We can unlock thoughts and beliefs which are rooted in human unconscious and have a sublime status in nations’ cultures by reflecting on these tales. Herbal myths are among these beliefs. The article reviews Iran fairy tales from “Dictionary of Iranian Myths” book which are classified in magic and witchery stories No. 300 to 749 in Aarne–Thompson classification system with library method; and it also unlocks constructive elements of these tales with descriptive-analytic method; after these, we analyze the thought of plants’ holiness and presence of herbal heroes which are a various form of herbal and productivity gods. High frequency of believing in wish tree and its related stories, emergence of fairies and humans through trees and plants shows effective presence of plants’ holiness and hidden link of human and plant in Iranian fairy tales. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Hermeneutic-Intertextual Reading of a verse of Hafiz Divan Based on Intertextual Theory of “Michael Riffaterre”
        دکتر سید علی  قاسم‌زاده علی اکبر  فخرو
        This article emphasizes and focuses on this verse: “O sweet fountain! from the modesty of thy sweet lip (the stream of divine grace), Now, steeped in water and sweat (of toil of search), a piece of sugar (the illusory beloved)-- is not, that is not” to review hidden se More
        This article emphasizes and focuses on this verse: “O sweet fountain! from the modesty of thy sweet lip (the stream of divine grace), Now, steeped in water and sweat (of toil of search), a piece of sugar (the illusory beloved)-- is not, that is not” to review hidden semantic layers of text based on Hermeneutic-Intertextual analysis approach of Michael Riffaterre. The basis of this Hermeneutic structuralist approach of Riffaterre is that Intertextual aspects of poem will be unlocked by help of non-grammars (literary non-normalities) passing through first layer of meaning (linear reading) to underlying and deep structure level of poem (non-linear reading). In his view, allusion or quotation is a hypogram which is activated previously in another text and current text is discovered due to the kind of reading of audience, recovery and its implications. The result of applying theoretical framework of Riffaterre is that Hafiz intellectual matrix in this verse is lyric and romantic and its hypogram is totally congruent and correspondent with criteria of this matrix. Reader uncovers hidden underlying layers of text from obvious Intertextual level of Khosru and Shirin poem of Nizami (Cliché and descriptive hypogram) with help of presuppositions and his mind meaning hypograms. It seems Hafiz wants to represent the kind of communication and love affair with his ideal beloved through deconstructing semantic substructure of text by using all capacities of meaning-creation of ambiguity and magic of lexical collocations. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Satire Techniques Representations in Theme Structure of “Farhad Hasan Zade's” Stories
          حسين  ادهمي
        Farhad Hasan Zade (Born in 1341/1962) is one of the satirists whose works are mostly within the domain of Children and Adolescent Literature. His satire stories are mainly taken from social realities enriched with social themes and a moderate criticism and represent soc More
        Farhad Hasan Zade (Born in 1341/1962) is one of the satirists whose works are mostly within the domain of Children and Adolescent Literature. His satire stories are mainly taken from social realities enriched with social themes and a moderate criticism and represent social affairs and problems. He uses satire techniques in these stories which show his mastery on common methods and patterns of satire writing. The article reviews three story collections by Farhad Hasan Zade and investigates his methods in satire writing. First section of the article introduces satire techniques in these stories and second section reviews the representation and frequency of these techniques in different parts of stories’ themes. Based on findings of this article, although Hasan Zade’s satire techniques impact on story elements like space, characterization, tone, style, language and so on, the representations of these techniques are obvious in structure of stories’ themes. These techniques are located in narration flow of stories by being present in different parts of theme (start, inconstancy, expansion, climax point, problem solving and end); they are parts of story body in climax and end points. Reviewing the frequency of representation of these techniques in different parts of theme, we may come to these conclusions: “start” and “expansion” in different parts of stories’ theme have more variety and frequency than satire techniques and in “end” point of story “raid” and “satire turn” techniques have more frequencies. The article reviews these findings and explains the relation between these techniques and structure of themes in Hasan Zade stories with descriptive-analytic method in which statistical data, tables and charts were used too. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Different Kind of Self-Repairs and Their Status In Alternations of Persian Daily Conversations
        حیدرعلی  امینی مسیح‌اله  نعمتی شهلا  شریفی
        Sometimes speakers pause in a part of their speech or repeat one of their saying or word in daily conversations due to some reason or even interrupt their speech. These behaviors which are a specific kind of correction are named self-repair. The study identifies diffe More
        Sometimes speakers pause in a part of their speech or repeat one of their saying or word in daily conversations due to some reason or even interrupt their speech. These behaviors which are a specific kind of correction are named self-repair. The study identifies different kinds of self-repairs and their status in succession of alternations in Persian daily conversations and real occurrence frequency of every one of self-repairs and also their concomitant Lexical-initiations and Non-lexical-initiations. The study involves 254 sentences or phrases which have repairable elements and have been collected from different environments and with different subjects during one month of 1392/2013. Findings show that self-repairs and their status in Persian daily conversations are similar with results claimed by “Shegloff and colleagues” (1977) about English Language. It is also shown that the frequency of self-initiated self-repair is more than other kinds of self-repair in Persian daily conversation. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - Reviewing and Criticism of Research Articles on Literature in 1380 (2000) Decade
        عبدالله  راز ahmad razi
        Publishing research articles in contemporary period is an appropriate chance to share research findings of different scholars and informing audiences about new scientific achievements. Although their publishing have been quantitatively increasing in recent decade, there More
        Publishing research articles in contemporary period is an appropriate chance to share research findings of different scholars and informing audiences about new scientific achievements. Although their publishing have been quantitatively increasing in recent decade, there were no due attention to their assessment and criticism. This article, with a descriptive-analytic method, assesses those kinds of research articles published from 1381/2001 to 1390/2011. The research expresses advantages and disadvantages of these articles and presents a picture of the status of scientific article writing in domain of literary studies. In so doing, 345 articles were selected as examples and most important subjects under focus of authors were identified and were classified in frame of text-based, context-based, author-based, reader-based, and different articles. Moreover, patterns of cooperation between authors, and quality and quantity of used resources in these articles were presented in different charts and tables. As this issue is so important and to assess the accuracy of obtained results from main sample size, another set of 345 articles were exactly reviewed in two groups of “evidence 1” and “evidence 2”. This review shows that although articles have various subjects, apply different kinds of resources, consider some interdisciplinary approaches particularly in second half of this decade relative accuracy in composing coherent articles, specialty of some journals related to literature and considerable increase of university instructors and students cooperation in publishing articles, there are lots of deficiencies in these articles, like methodology, dominance of descriptive approach, repeated contents, lack of critical view, high frequency of education-based articles, and spread of quantitative and formal criteria and so on… Manuscript Document