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      • Open Access Article

        1 - Functions of Description in Some Contemporary Persian Short Stories
        مینا اعلایی محمد جواد شکریان
        In literary works, narratives and descriptions have always been interconnected in an indistinguishable way. In accordance with narratological studies during last decades, several theories have presented models of various functions of description in different literary wo Full Text
        In literary works, narratives and descriptions have always been interconnected in an indistinguishable way. In accordance with narratological studies during last decades, several theories have presented models of various functions of description in different literary works and ascribed a specific form of description to each of the literary genres. Among these genres, the importance of description in realism and naturalism, and its role in developing the events and characters, is irrefutable. This research, aims at applying the theories an literary description to several realist, and naturalist contemporary Persian stories. After studying the history and importance of description in novels, this research tries to explain its role in defining spatio-temporal framework, and the educational and generally aesthetic goals of several Persian short stories. In this regard, stories from Jamalzadeh, Hedayat, Alavi, Al-e-Ahmad, and Choubak have been selected, and different functions of description in these stories have been investigated. The results of the Research show that in the above mentioned authors’ works, description has not been a neutral element, and it doesn’t put a stop to the narrative process, but it helps the development of the story through different ways of camouflaging it. In addition to expressing the behavior and actions of characters, in the stories studied, description occasionally results in the preparation of spatio- temporal framework of the story, and sometimes it turns into a collection of encyclopedic insights and finds an educational function. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Analyzing the Process of Selecting Compounds as Headwords In “Sokhan” and “Moaser” Dictionaries
        روح الله افراه Seyyed Mahdi Samaaee Belqis Rowshan Bahman zandi
        This study aims to reveal whether different contemporary Farsi dictionaries lexicographers choose those compound words made by productive word-formation processes as the headwords, and whether they follow the same procedure for selecting the headwords in lexicography or Full Text
        This study aims to reveal whether different contemporary Farsi dictionaries lexicographers choose those compound words made by productive word-formation processes as the headwords, and whether they follow the same procedure for selecting the headwords in lexicography or not. To do this, two monolingual Farsi Dictionaries have been selected based on their closeness to today's Spoken Farsi: “Sokhan” by Hasan Anvari (2003) and “Moaser e Emrooz” by Gholamhosein Sadri Afshar (2002). In this descriptive research, First, the compound words which were headwords in the dictionaries mentioned before were extracted (495 words in Anvari’s , and 605 words in Sadri Asher’s dictionaries). Then, these words have been classified into twenty five categories based on Tabatabaee (2010-2007). The analysis revealed that even those compounds formed by the productive and predictable word formation processes (e.g. noun + present verb stem( have been used as headwords in these dictionaries. It has been concluded that the concept of wordhoodness or wordness which refers to the changing of the constituents larger than words, e.g. sentence, phrase and etc. into a word is the main criterion for selecting compounds as the headwords. On the other hand, this research revealed that the lexicographers follows almost the same method in selecting the headwords. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Children's Literature and Contemporary Ideologies
          Ayeshe Khoje
        Children’s literature does not have a long history in Iran and works in this field goes back to the era of Iranian constitutional revolution and the modernization of Iranian society. It is clear that modernism and its ideologies such as liberalism, nationalism and Marxi Full Text
        Children’s literature does not have a long history in Iran and works in this field goes back to the era of Iranian constitutional revolution and the modernization of Iranian society. It is clear that modernism and its ideologies such as liberalism, nationalism and Marxism have contributed to the emergence and development of children’s literature. The fact that how two of the most famous children works of that time (“Ahmad's Book” and “Little Black Fish”) were ideological, can be considered as a proof for this claim. For this reason the main question in the present research is the nature of the relation between contemporary ideologies and children’s literature, and to answer this question two stories, Ahmad's Book (1932) and Little Black Fish (1968) and also the poems in the textbooks of the first Pahlavi era (1925-1941) are studied while each one of them can be assigned to one of the main ideologies in Iran's contemporary history before the Islamic revolution. Due to the fact that different contemporary ideologies have different attitudes towards children, they provide different norms and patterns for children's literature. For example, according to liberalism, which is represented roughly by Talboof’s “Ahmad’s book” the appropriate literature for children is the one that acquaints them with various aspects of critical thinking while nationalism – the poems selected from children’s textbooks in Pahlavi era reflect this ideology- want to create and institutionalize a sense of devotion and sacrifice in children. According to Marxism as the most revolutionary contemporary ideology, the appropriate type of literature for the children is the one that enlightens them (class consciousness, etc.), and make them ready for the final battle to transform the society. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Conceptual Blending of War, Hunting and Love in Saadi’s Ghazals Based on Fauconnier and Turner
          nasrin fahgih malek marzban
        The aim of this research is to explain the conceptual blending of war and hunting, and to analyze the specific dimentions of this blending in Saadi’s Ghazals based on Fauconnier and Turner. One of the frequent cognitive concepts in Saadi’s Ghazals is war and hunting as Full Text
        The aim of this research is to explain the conceptual blending of war and hunting, and to analyze the specific dimentions of this blending in Saadi’s Ghazals based on Fauconnier and Turner. One of the frequent cognitive concepts in Saadi’s Ghazals is war and hunting as the input domain of love. The theory of conceptual blending is an effective instrument for understanding the interaction between a conceptual system with its domains. Fauconnier and Turner introduced the theory of multispace or network model. In the network model, the common concepts of two input domains create a generic space. Moreover, the interaction between these two input domains creates a blended space in which the conceptual structure can not be percieved only from the input spaces. In this research we will show that most concepts of love are related to the beloved and specific terms used to describe him/her. In the blended domain, there are some paradoxical concepts like considering death as eternal life, or captivity as freedom. After demonstrating the dimentions of conceptual blending of war and hunting , we will try to find out how the resulted paradox in the blended domain is created. The hypothesis is that this paradox is resulted from the effects of mystical concepts of love in Sufi discourse on the poet’s mental models, even if the Ghazal is categorized as a love one. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Critical Analysis of Governmental Discourse in the First Chapter of Saadi’s Bustan
             
        Saadi’ s point of view about the establishment of a desirable society specially the role of the government and its members have been the center of attention in “Gulistan”, and “Bustan”. the topic has been addressed in the first chapter of these two books. Among the ten Full Text
        Saadi’ s point of view about the establishment of a desirable society specially the role of the government and its members have been the center of attention in “Gulistan”, and “Bustan”. the topic has been addressed in the first chapter of these two books. Among the ten chapters of Bustan, the first chapter “On Justice, council and administration of government” was selected for the analysis of the governmental discourse because many stories and anecdotes mentioned in this chapter are about the administration of government and social relationships while in the other eight chapters just a few number of stories address government and relations between the essential elements of the society. The data gathered (stories in the first chapter of Bustan) is analyzed based on a critical discourse analysis approach. Among the critical discourse analysis theories, the methodology introduced by Norman Fairclough is chosen according to which the analysis of the three dimensions of text, discourse and society is based on Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar. The results of this research can be summarized as follows: Although Saadi’s Bustan is considered a book written to support the government of that time, and it’s not an anti-government text, Saadi’s point of view towards the government which is accompanied by the emphasis on the welfare of the poor, and the development of the country is very interesting. This can be perceived by considering both the discourse analysis data and the social conditions of that era. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Comprative Study of Motion Verbs in the Middle and Modern Persian
        Faeghe Shahhoseini Belqis Rowshan Narjes banoo Saburi Arezu Najafian
        Cognitive typology is focused on conceptual principles, experience, and cognition to analyze language universals and differences in the representation of categories, experiences, etc. among the languages of the world. One of the fundamental principles of cognitive lingu Full Text
        Cognitive typology is focused on conceptual principles, experience, and cognition to analyze language universals and differences in the representation of categories, experiences, etc. among the languages of the world. One of the fundamental principles of cognitive linguistics, and thus cognitive typology is the rejection of the distinction between diachronic and synchronic linguistics. In fact, neglecting the changes a language goes through time, results in neglecting the evidences that historically affected today’s language use. Therefore, this research aims to study different ways of using motion verbs in the Middle Persian (focusing on Zoroastrian Middle Persian) and comparing them with Modern Persian to find out about the changes in representation of motion verbs through the history of Persian language. Theoretical framework of this research is cognitive typology (Talmy, 2000) based on which languages are classified into two types of verb-framing and satellite-framing. In verb-framing languages, the information about path of movement is expressed in a verb, but in satellite –framing languages, information about the path is expressed outside the verb. One of the main elements of events is the path of motion which is represented in different ways in different languages based on their features and capacities. Therefore, motion verbs represent different information about the path of motion. In this article motion verbs in Middle and Modern Persian are analyzed and compared based on a cognitive approach. Results show that in this regard, Middle Persian is verb-framing, but Modern Persian is both verb-framing and satellite framing which may be due to the cognitive development of the speakers through time, and the growing capacity of languages to communicate the concepts. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - Analyzing the function of “Fictional Allegory” in the Plot of Short Stories
        لیلا رضایی عباس جاهدجاه
        Allegory is one of the rhetorical devices that has attracted a great deal of attention from critics for its semantic functions. Among different types of allegory, fictional allegory which has a narrative structure has had a wide application in classical and contemporary Full Text
        Allegory is one of the rhetorical devices that has attracted a great deal of attention from critics for its semantic functions. Among different types of allegory, fictional allegory which has a narrative structure has had a wide application in classical and contemporary Persian literature. Like poetry, contemporary story has benefited from semantic functions of allegory in many cases. Studying the fictional allegories used in modern short stories, illustrates that some authors have used this device not just for its semantic function, but also it in the structural part of the story. Aiming at studying this function, in this research three Persian short stories (“Mehdi”, “Amphibians”, “Fiction and Grief”) are analyzed based on the ideas of Brian Richardson about the structural effect of rhetorical devices in modern stories to show that in addition to its semantic function, fictional allegory has a role in the plot structure of modern short stories . Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        8 - SANAAEI AND HIS VIEWS ABOUT SATAN
        faride davoudi moghadam
        In the history of mysticism, some mystics for their praise of Eblis (satan) are known as defenders of satan. People like Hallaj, Aeinol-Ghozat Hamedani, Ahmand Al-Ghazali, Kharaghani and so, have defended Satan in two following ways. One, because of putting it in tr Full Text
        In the history of mysticism, some mystics for their praise of Eblis (satan) are known as defenders of satan. People like Hallaj, Aeinol-Ghozat Hamedani, Ahmand Al-Ghazali, Kharaghani and so, have defended Satan in two following ways. One, because of putting it in trial by God (ebtela) and the other, because of deep devotion and intuition of Satan. Sanaaei Ghaznavi with his following ode (ghazal) is considered to be one of those Satan defenders: با او دلم به مهر و مودت يگانه بود سيمرغ عشق را دل من آشيانه بود The aim of this research is to put light on this problem, whether we are able to consider Sanaaei as a Satan defender with referring to only an ode (Ghazal) which is attributed to him, whereas he has got many other poems against Satan. So, whether we are right to consider him as a pro-Satan or anti-Satan with referring to his texts and verses which are collected in his Masnavis, Diwan and Hadigahtol-Haghigheh. With surveying his texts, we are coming to know that Sanaaei could not be considered as Satan defender, but, on the other hand this ode also is expressed in all his manuscripts. Manuscript Document