• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Ahmad-e Jam and Tadhkira Writers in a Story in a Manuscript and "Maqamat-e Zhandeh Pil"
         
        Changes in linguistic potentials and the expansion of vocabulary storage, and the development of syntetic and rhetoric patterns in different periods of time may result in different readings and recreation of the texts. Tadhkirah (memorandum) and biographies are no excep Full Text
        Changes in linguistic potentials and the expansion of vocabulary storage, and the development of syntetic and rhetoric patterns in different periods of time may result in different readings and recreation of the texts. Tadhkirah (memorandum) and biographies are no exceptions. Infact, each revision of literary texts creates a new picture of the previous text. In order to find the facts in the texts with real and historical basis, especially in the history of literature, comparing writings in different periods of time and the differences between narratives according to linguistic features and intellectual features of that period is very important. It shows the difference in people’s thoughts in each period and the effect of external factors on the creation of the literary works. In " Maqamat-e Zhandeh Pil" there is a narration about Ahmad-e Jam which is narrated in one of the manuscripts of Tehran University too, but in a different way. In addition to correcting this manuscript, this research aims at finding those instances that show how narrators and those who write memorandums with some subtle changes in describing his characteristics and manners through a sentence or just a word demonstrate an obscure picture of Sheikh-e Jam. Comparing these two narratives show that in addition to some linguistic and rhetoric differences, there are some changes in the setting, and description of the events and actions which indicate that the narrators have not been that loyal to the original text. However, their similarity in sentencing and narration indicates the existence of an alder narration of the story which has probably been the source of both these manuscripts. Considering contents, both writers explicitly illustrate the same historical and geographical information about the subject with no discordance. Furthermore, this story is a clear document indicating the power and state of Suffiya in that era. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - The Stucture of “Gioumard” Myth Based on Lévi-Strauss’ Theory
        rahman zabihi parvin paykani
        In this study, based on the structuralist theory of Claude Lévi-Strauss, and by using a descriptive-analytic method, the mytheme, binary oppositions and the main structure of the narratives about Gioumard myth in the ancient texts will be explained and analyzed. In this Full Text
        In this study, based on the structuralist theory of Claude Lévi-Strauss, and by using a descriptive-analytic method, the mytheme, binary oppositions and the main structure of the narratives about Gioumard myth in the ancient texts will be explained and analyzed. In this article, the function of Mithra, Mashi and Mashyaneh myth, the two main oppositions in Gioumard myth i.e. death/ rebirth, and supernatural/ natural creation will be explained and it will be shown that Gioumard’s confrontation with devil reflects the battle of good and evil which is the basis of Iranian thoughts about dualistic world- view. The everlasting battle between Gioumard as the representative of humans with Ahriman, demonstrates the continuity of life and death circle since Gioumard defeat Ahriman in his life and by his death he gives Ahriman the chance to win. Then, Ahriman unknowingly reaches the end of “the limited time” and loses the battle. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Philosophical Perspectives on “Creation of the World” in Shahnameh
          mahmood modaberi mohamadreza sarfi
        The mystery of creation as a complicated concept is present in all aspects of life, thinking, and imagination of human beings. Art and literature provide appropriate grounds for the reflection and representation of this amazing issue. Abolghasem Ferdowsi, is a poet who Full Text
        The mystery of creation as a complicated concept is present in all aspects of life, thinking, and imagination of human beings. Art and literature provide appropriate grounds for the reflection and representation of this amazing issue. Abolghasem Ferdowsi, is a poet who was born in the era which was the climax of the flourishment of Islamic civilization and formation of Mu’tazila, Ash’ari , and Shia schools of Kalam, and his poems are based on his wisdom and thoughts about God, man and existence. In this article “remarks about the creation of the world” as a part of Shahnameh is analyzed through studying the important philosophical principles and framework (e.g. creation of the world, pre-eternity or creation in time, the primary essence and the stages of creation) about the creation of the world in Ferdowsi era. This paper tries to show whether common beliefs of Ferdowsi era have been reflected in his remarks about the creation of the world. The results show that in Shahnameh the intellectual and philosophical thoughts of ancient Iranians and Islamic philosophers are accompanied together in a way that it is impossible to delimit Fedowsi to a specific discourse or thought, and he can be considered a representative of the wisdom of “ Islamic Iran” in his era. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - The Influence of Poets of Shiraz (Sa’adi and Hafez) on Russian Poems
          Janolah Karimi Motahhar
        In this article some Russian poets like Mikhail Alekseevich Kuzmin, Igor Vasilyevich Sourianin, Dmitri Borisovich Kedrin and Ilia Lovich Slivinski who are inspired by poets of Shiraz, Sa’adi and Hafez are introduced, and their poems with themes similar to Persian litera Full Text
        In this article some Russian poets like Mikhail Alekseevich Kuzmin, Igor Vasilyevich Sourianin, Dmitri Borisovich Kedrin and Ilia Lovich Slivinski who are inspired by poets of Shiraz, Sa’adi and Hafez are introduced, and their poems with themes similar to Persian literature and aforementioned Shirazi poets’ thoughts will be analyzed. This article aims at studying the Russian poets’ approach towards Sa’adi and Hafez’s poetry, and those motifs in their poems that the Russian poets were interested in. For example, how are the moral themes reflected? In addition to ethics, have they shown any interest to the literary styles? Since some Russian poets got familiar with the style of Ghazal in Iranian poetry, have they used this style under the influence of Persian poets? Who are those Russian poets that used this style, and which Iranian poets had influenced them more? This article focuses on the period in Russian literature in which the greatest attention had been paid to the poets of Shiraz, and looks for reasons for this tendency. Some famous Russian poets of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries of the Russian literature have paid special attention to the ideas of Sa’adi and Hafez. This study reveals that there are various kinds of effects and tendencies. The reasons for the Russian poets’ interest and tendency towards the poets of Shiraz (Sa’adi and Hafez) is discussed. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Criticizing Mohammad al-Forati ’s Translation of Hafez Shirazi's Poems (Case study of the sonnets 454 and 486)
          mohsen sifi Abbas  Eghbaly Reza  Shajari
        Translation as a connecting link between languages and cultures has always strengthened the link between Persian and Arabic languages, and the poems of Persian language poets have always been a source of interest for Arabic-language translators. Syrian poet Mohammed al- Full Text
        Translation as a connecting link between languages and cultures has always strengthened the link between Persian and Arabic languages, and the poems of Persian language poets have always been a source of interest for Arabic-language translators. Syrian poet Mohammed al-Forati (1880-1978) was one of the Arab poets and translators who translated Hafez's ghazals into Arabic poetry. In this essay, using a descriptive analytical method the translation of two ghazals of Hafez by al-Forati is analyzed. Based on Reception theory, it is discussed that although the translator had a good knowledge of Persian language, he sometimes made mistakes in understanding metonymy and Iham in the poems, and as a result, he was not successful in receiving the message from the source language and transferring it to the readers of the target language. Of course, his translation is very beautiful despite the shortcomings caused by the failure in perceiving the purpose of Hafez, and he has tried to reconstruct Hafez's poetic language regarding rhythm and rhyme. It has also become clear that he has been more successful in understanding the poems that were not open to mystical interpretation. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Common Discourses in Suhrawardi's Era and the Narrative Construction of "Moones Al Oshagh"
        gholamreza shamsi parsa yaghoobi janbesaraei
        Sheikh Eshragh mixed the thoughts of the wise men of the East and the West of the world and called it, “Eternal Essence” or Khamyreh Azali”. In one of his symbolic treatises; “Moounes Al Oshagh” or “Fi Haghighat Al Eshgh”; He has changed the names of the creatures from Full Text
        Sheikh Eshragh mixed the thoughts of the wise men of the East and the West of the world and called it, “Eternal Essence” or Khamyreh Azali”. In one of his symbolic treatises; “Moounes Al Oshagh” or “Fi Haghighat Al Eshgh”; He has changed the names of the creatures from “the First Intellect” or “Aghl’ e Avval”, and mixed it with the names of the characters and the events in the romantic-mystical story of Joseph and Zoleikha. The researchers under the influence of Sheikh’s illuminationist viewpoint present a philosophical-mystical analysis of this narration without getting involved in the political and social aspects hidden in the deep structure of this work. Social and political events and generally the co-text and the context of situation reinforces the assumption of the existence of political and ideological thoughts in Sheikh's works, and in this story. Fairclough's critical discourse analysis approach is one of the most comprehensive methods to study the ideological attitudes of the texts. Analyzing this story by this method in three levels of description, interpretation, and explanation shows that Suhrawardi has described and criticized three common discourses in his era in this story, which are manifested in mystical texts under the terms "Shariat", "Tariqat" and "Haghighat". Through selecting characters, places, collocations, opposite words and metaphoric and symbolic aspects, he enriches the discourse of the second group as the dominant discourse. The discourse of the second group is a symbol of his own ideological discourse that has been emerged through the allegorical character of love and the historical figure of Zoleikha. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - Encountering “Others” in Anvari's Invectives
        Reza Zarrinkamar  
        Encountering “others” is one of the humans’ basic issues in their social life while its quality and the quality of human life are directly related to each other. It involves selecting between violence and tolerance. Through studying the approach of one of the greatest p Full Text
        Encountering “others” is one of the humans’ basic issues in their social life while its quality and the quality of human life are directly related to each other. It involves selecting between violence and tolerance. Through studying the approach of one of the greatest poets of Persian literature regarding this issue, this research tries to study how encountering “others” has been described in invectives as a genre in Persian literature. Anvari's invectives are among the most important resources for identifying his personality and viewpoint. Contrary to ode (Qasida) and Ghazal, the poet has more freedom of speech in invectives; thus, it is possible to learn more about the poet’s world and identity through studying this literary genre. studying the components of encountering “others” reveals the attitude of the poet and his discourse towards tolerance and violence. The results of this research indicate that Anvari encounters “others” in a violent way in his invectives, in a way that is far from tolerating or accepting “others”. Verbal violence will result in normalizing violence in social relations in encountering “others’ and pave the way for other types of violence like elimination and rejection. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        8 - An Analysis of methods of effective writing in Maqalate- e Shams
        Mahdi  Mohabbati
        Creative writing can be described as the access to the optimal function of the written language through the replacement of the elements of a sentence especially the verb and the coordination of language with mental and contextual realities. This approach is so popular a Full Text
        Creative writing can be described as the access to the optimal function of the written language through the replacement of the elements of a sentence especially the verb and the coordination of language with mental and contextual realities. This approach is so popular all around the world that there is even a discipline under the same title in some universities. On the other hand, there are some texts in Persian prose whose writers have achieved the creative writing through their linguistic competence, deep intelligence, and observing linguistic rules for creative writing. Maqalate- e Shams is one of such important resources. Meticulous application of sentence elements and moving them to different positions in the text, considering the frequency of such displacements, and using discourse strategies makes most of his book the excellent samples of Persian creative writing. The aim of this paper is to offer a definition of creative writing and illustrate rules and examples of such writing in Shams' articles, and reinforcing it his articles in Persian language and literature. Considering Shams's specific approach, it is realized that he has made Persian prose extremely powerful by using personification, visualization of the text, accordance of the textual reality with the contextual reality, excessive use of verbs, artistic playing with complements and dislocating sentence elements. Manuscript Document