• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - The Place of Poetry in Plato’s and Aristotle’s Sense
         
        One of the interesting and significant discussions in the history of literary criticism in Greek classical literature is Plato’s oppositions to poetry and Aristotle’s defense of it. Although their assumptions were based on common grounds and both considered art as a t Full Text
        One of the interesting and significant discussions in the history of literary criticism in Greek classical literature is Plato’s oppositions to poetry and Aristotle’s defense of it. Although their assumptions were based on common grounds and both considered art as a type of mimesis, but they were not of the same view on the value of poetry and the concept of mimesis. Their special philosophical thought system and genius which undoubtedly shaped and influenced philosophy and literary criticism through decades, has always been open to study and criticism. this article is an attempt to investigate the bases of their intellectual and ideational systems according to which they evaluate poetry. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - A Criticism of Studying and Categorizing Classical Poetry Meters in the Metric Phonology Framework
        فاطمه  علوی علی‌محمد  حق‌شناس فردوس  آقاگلزاده Aliyeh  Kord Zafaranlu kambuzia
        This paper aims at studying the meters which are common between Arabic and Persian poems. To this end, we examine and discuss the theory of Golston and Riad (1998) about classical meters. These classical meters in turn are driven from the theory of metrics by Khalil Ibn Full Text
        This paper aims at studying the meters which are common between Arabic and Persian poems. To this end, we examine and discuss the theory of Golston and Riad (1998) about classical meters. These classical meters in turn are driven from the theory of metrics by Khalil Ibn Ahmad, the famous grammarian and the founder of Aruz (prosody). Golston and Riad's theory is one of the well-known theories in scientific interpretation and classification of Alkhalil meters, and is written in the framework of prosodic metrics. Though this theory is essentially for Arabic meters, it's vividly applicable to Persian meters, too. Metric units of this theory are: syllable, foot, metron, and hemistich the dominant property of which is "binarity". Here we first examine the different dimensions of the theory and then study the theoretical implications of it in the realm of Persian meters. Findings of this research show that the distinct appreciation of the Arab and the Persian about their respective verses has its roots in phonology. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Structural Analyzing of Criticism
        صدیقه (پوران)  علیپور
        Criticism is an abstraction originating from the readers’ mental feedbacks and leading to the analysis of the texts. While some scholars see this the only way to evaluate literary works, criticism basically deals with diachronic (author-based and history-oriented) and s Full Text
        Criticism is an abstraction originating from the readers’ mental feedbacks and leading to the analysis of the texts. While some scholars see this the only way to evaluate literary works, criticism basically deals with diachronic (author-based and history-oriented) and synchronic (metaphysics of text and reader’s feedback) readings. Critical reading examines a text and judges it considering all its complex structural texture with the help of textual or meta-textual explicit and implicit elements. With such an approach, this paper, first, attempts to study the pros and cons of criticism, and then drawing a diagram for criticism, interprets it as an intelligent communications network from critics to texts and the world of textuality. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Synaestesia: character and nature
        مینا  بهنام
        This essay tries to study synaestesia with a cognitive approach to the structure of language. Its theoretical framework is provided by Joseph Stern (semantician), Stefan Ulmann (linguist), and Osgood (psychologist). The author tries to explain the symbolic nature of th Full Text
        This essay tries to study synaestesia with a cognitive approach to the structure of language. Its theoretical framework is provided by Joseph Stern (semantician), Stefan Ulmann (linguist), and Osgood (psychologist). The author tries to explain the symbolic nature of this linguistic phenomenon as well as the speaker’s perceptional process while using it, and its emotional and mental effects on them. When explained the formation process of synaestesia, we will study it as a neurological and perceptional category. Then, we will provide some examples from Persian literature to clarify the structure of synaestesia. At last, we will come to rethinking synaestesia in art and linguistic phenomena (poetry and prose). According to the finding of the research, synaestesias is a metaphor in which a particular meaning, common to a given perceptional domain, projects to another domain to which it no longer is usual. The basis of such a transition is a kind of similarity and interference between the two domains. In general, this possibility comes from man’s selective system of thinking and his capability to use metaphor. That is why it is frequently seen in different fields of art, including cinema, painting and music. Literary schools use synaestesia differently, not just for creating images, but to communicate special meaning, and to impress the audience. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - The Deep and Hidden Influence of Quran upon Hafez Poetry Regarding the Fifth Sonnet in his Divan
        علی  نظری علی  فتح اللهی پروانه  رضایی
        It is obvious that Hafez poetry is completely affected by the Quran in its words, expressions, phrases, structure and style. This has made his word symbolic, ambiguous, multilayer in content, and artistic. His fifth sonnet has been inspired by the story of Moses and Abd Full Text
        It is obvious that Hafez poetry is completely affected by the Quran in its words, expressions, phrases, structure and style. This has made his word symbolic, ambiguous, multilayer in content, and artistic. His fifth sonnet has been inspired by the story of Moses and Abd (Khedhr) in the Quran. He must have consciously and skillfully got use of the plot of the story and combined it with the elements of Persian poetry. Key words and phrases making the reader of the sonnet associate them with the verses from the Quran including ‘unveiling the mystery’, ‘wrecked ship’, ‘visiting the familiar one’, ‘the man of poverty’, ‘struggle for joy and pleasure’, ‘getting addict by wine’, and begging apology’ directly or indirectly are the signs and symbols whose compatibility with the content of the verses 62 and 82 in the Surah of Kahf (cave) the author tries to examine. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - A Critical Approach to compatibility of Bakthin’s Views with an Epic Work Like Shahnameh
        کاظم  دزفولیان
        Contemporary literary theorists have examined different literary genres from different standpoints. Among them Mhkail Bakhtin, a distinguished Russian literary critic, stands out from the rest. Highlighting his key concept of dialogism, Bakhtin among different literary Full Text
        Contemporary literary theorists have examined different literary genres from different standpoints. Among them Mhkail Bakhtin, a distinguished Russian literary critic, stands out from the rest. Highlighting his key concept of dialogism, Bakhtin among different literary genres singles novel, especially Dostoyevsky’s novels as possessing dialogic or polyphonic quality where the voice of narrator isn’t dominant. In this article we aimed at examining compatibility of Ferdosi’s Shahnameh with Bakhtin’s views. Findings of the research show that some of the stories have dialogic and polyphonic quality. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - A Structural and Semiotic Analysis of Nezami's ‘Haft Peykar’, from a Dramatic Point of View
        بهروز  محمودی بختیاری میترا  علوی طلب
        Nezami Ganjavi has always been recognized as one of the greatest creators of fictional masterpieces of Persian literature. However, the studies on his method of narration and characterization are so few in number. On the other hand, most of the works available have deal Full Text
        Nezami Ganjavi has always been recognized as one of the greatest creators of fictional masterpieces of Persian literature. However, the studies on his method of narration and characterization are so few in number. On the other hand, most of the works available have dealt with Nezami's life, his literary innovations, and explanations about the difficult verses of him. This shows that there is a lot to be done about his method of storytelling, as well as the patterns of his fictional narrations. This study has chosen Haft Peykar from Nezami's five "treasures", since the dramatic patterns in this work seem to be more vivid, and on the basis of the methods available in structuralism and semiotics, it has been tried to present the reader the dramatic aspects of this work. In order to achieve this aim, issues such as characterization, dramatic situation, action and results, suspense and the active characters have been taken into account so that the proper framework may be provided for further adaptations or rewritings of Haft Peykar. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        8 - Functions of Communicative Silence in Reading Literary Texts
        لیلا  صادقی
        The purpose of the present article is to examine the different functions of silence as a part of linguistic communication as well as the absence of any kind of linguistic element. Based on the Organon-Model by Karl Buhler, Roman Jacobson (1956) distinguishes six communi Full Text
        The purpose of the present article is to examine the different functions of silence as a part of linguistic communication as well as the absence of any kind of linguistic element. Based on the Organon-Model by Karl Buhler, Roman Jacobson (1956) distinguishes six communication functions, each associated with a dimension of the communication process. Michael Ephratt (2008) has revised the same model, considering (Eloquent) silence as a linguistic sign which conveys information in the referential, emotive, conative, phatic, metalinguistic functions. To shed light on the issue, we study several literary texts to show how communicational silence, which is a new issue in literary linguistics, and its functions are applied to transferring a message or narrating a story. It can be considered as a narrative technique in order to say something through blank, absent or deferred elements. The question of the article is how six communication functions of silence could apply to expressing something. The result of the study showed that silence has a significant role in activating reader's role in reading a text. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        9 - A Survey to the Narrative Time in the Play of "Moonlight Women, Sunny Man"
        مهدی  نیک‌منش سونا  سلیمیان
        In the few decades that narratology has been introduced as a science, narratologists have tried to explore its universal structure by finding specific narrative patterns for different aspects of story writing, including narrative time. The French theorist, Gerard Genett Full Text
        In the few decades that narratology has been introduced as a science, narratologists have tried to explore its universal structure by finding specific narrative patterns for different aspects of story writing, including narrative time. The French theorist, Gerard Genette, has posed an autonomous theory on "the parameter of time and its function and place in narration". According to him, timing arrangement in a narration is got through order, duration, and frequency. Studying and contrasting them against real time, one can determine the place of time in the process of story. Studying narrative time of in the play of "Moonlight Women, Sunny Man" by Chista Yaserbi shows that Yasrebi, avoiding the usual time sequence, and moving from chronological time to the text time, has made different selections and provided flashback and futurist narratives. Such selections and their especial timing plays a significant role in arranging the components of the plot, as well as suspense. Moerover, studying duration and frequency of the events narrated in this play, shows that the events enjoy an appropriate beat and speed according to the author's purpose. Regarding principles of narratology, there is a direct and significant correlation between content of the play and the speed of narrating the events, their repetition and frequency. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        10 - Analyzing the movement of Iranian Mythological Themes and Narrations in Persian Novels. (Mordad 28, 1332 – 1387)
        سعید  بزرگ بیگدلی حسن  شاهی‌پور دکتر سید علی  قاسم‌زاده
        The emergence of mythology in the contemporary Persian novels, as the dominant literary discourse, is an epoch making movement. Based upon their vision and socio- political situation, many of the contemporary authors have used mythology in order to achieve two main goal Full Text
        The emergence of mythology in the contemporary Persian novels, as the dominant literary discourse, is an epoch making movement. Based upon their vision and socio- political situation, many of the contemporary authors have used mythology in order to achieve two main goals: one, to present an interpretation of the world around, and the other, to enhance the esthetic and attractive values which they are to present in their works. According to the findings of the research, novelists within the 1340’s and 1350’s showed most concern toward restructuring and reproducing myth ever. A main reason was the authors’ nostalgias caused by the events such as the defeat of folk movement and the coup of Mordad 28th which mad long and deep impression on them. The most tendencies to myths in post-revolution period can be seen in 1370’s and 1380’s. However, the authors’ motivations differ from those of the pre-revolution period. A vast number of writers follow modernist and postmodernist movements and aesthetical tastes; some try to strengthen and revive national features, turn back to their traditional origins rather than pure imitating the West. The present research seeks to study and analyze how the mythological theme and narratives have been reflected, reproduced in the contemporary Iranian novels from mordad 28th 1332 to 1387. Manuscript Document