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      • Open Access Article

        1 - From Meaningful Structure to the Structure of Quatrain (Ruba’i) (Sociological approach to the Relationship Between Worldview of Rudaki’s Age and the Structure of Quatrain)
        احمد  خاتمي منا  علي‌‌مددي  
        Quatrain is a form that first enjoyed wide currency among Iranian poets , then it found its way to Arab poetry; however, though it is believed by some, like Shams Qys Razi, that Rudaki first developed quatrain, due to lack of adequate documentation, there is no agreeme Full Text
        Quatrain is a form that first enjoyed wide currency among Iranian poets , then it found its way to Arab poetry; however, though it is believed by some, like Shams Qys Razi, that Rudaki first developed quatrain, due to lack of adequate documentation, there is no agreement on who was its inventor. Some believe that quatrain can be traced to the pre-Islamic form of poetry known as Khusrovani, others relate it to Sufis. In this paper, the authors believe that such arguments will never lead to a defensible result. So the issue needs to be viewed from another perspective. To do so, using Lucien Goldman’s theory of Genetic Structuralism, according to which there is a homologous relationship between the inherent structure of literary works and the key structures of the social context of the author, they have tried to show how quatrain is the reflection of rationalistic worldview of the rationalist poets of the Khurasani school of poetry rather than the evolution of Iranians pre-Islamic poetry. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Classification of Contents in Ibn Yamin’s Quatrain (Ruba’is)
        nasrolah emami زهرا  نصیری شیراز
        Quatrain is one of the forms of much interest for Farsi- speaking poets. Ibn Yamin Faryumadi , the famous poet and Qat’ah writer of the eighth century, was especially fascinated by this form. His quatrains enjoy a big variety in content; they can be considered among t Full Text
        Quatrain is one of the forms of much interest for Farsi- speaking poets. Ibn Yamin Faryumadi , the famous poet and Qat’ah writer of the eighth century, was especially fascinated by this form. His quatrains enjoy a big variety in content; they can be considered among the colorful quatrains of Farsi language. They can be classified into eight groups; each of them highlights a particular aspect of his worldview and poetic creativity. Since the opening of the seventh century, quatrain form went to lose its prosperity and currency; hence, the variety in content and subtle points of Ibn Yamin’s quatrains drew attentions to this form again. The quatrain form provided opportunity for the themes and contents, already dealt with by the poet in detail in his Qat’ahs, to be expressed briefly in another form. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Kalami arguments in Tarikh-e Beyhaqi
        جلیل مشیدی
        Abolfazl Beyhaqi, no doubt, was a Sunni Muslim, but of what branch of it is open to question. In his Tarikh, there is such a strong belief in destiny that he appears as a fatalist. On the other hand, regarding the responsibility he believes his historical characters had Full Text
        Abolfazl Beyhaqi, no doubt, was a Sunni Muslim, but of what branch of it is open to question. In his Tarikh, there is such a strong belief in destiny that he appears as a fatalist. On the other hand, regarding the responsibility he believes his historical characters had, he does not seemingly deny free will. Moreover, wisdom and rationalism are widely praised there, while he considers the Mo’tazileh rationalists as foes of Islam as Zendiqs (atheists) and Dahris (materialists). So, what religion could it be called? It cannot be marked as Ash'ari because the Ash’aris do not agree with rationalism. They do not even consider distinguishing between the good and bad as a matter of rationalistic practice. They had commitment just to what the Shar’ (Divine Law) knows as good or bad. Besides, they were not in a politically good position until the Seljuk took power in about the latter half of the fifth century AH, while in the time when in Basrah and Baqdad, Ash’ari began to reform religious beliefs, in Samarqand district, Abu-Mansour Matoridi (died in 333 AH) emerged with the ideology close to that of Ash’ari’s. Due to the importance he gave to rationalism, of course not so much as Ash’ari did, he attracted Ash’ari’s students who defended his views as revival of perfect Sunni Religion. Abolfazl Beyhaqi praises Abu Hanifah in his Tarikh; since most Hanafis were Matoridis, he can be considered as “Matoridi”. The present article, comparing and contrasting some writings of Beihaqi with Ash’ari and Matoridi beliefs, brings up and studies the probablity of his being Matoridi. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Sufi time
        افسانه  ناظري
        For Muslim Gnostics, “Time” has special meanings, implications and features which indicate “passing-away of human nature and manifestation of the Divine”. It is the very “Time” or “Present Time” when spiritual experiences and intuition of interior Truths happens. The “P Full Text
        For Muslim Gnostics, “Time” has special meanings, implications and features which indicate “passing-away of human nature and manifestation of the Divine”. It is the very “Time” or “Present Time” when spiritual experiences and intuition of interior Truths happens. The “Present Time” is between the past and future, but at the same time includes both. Accordingly, Sufi Time is going on in the present “Moment”, the moment having no temporal dimension; therefore, it goes on in a place which has no extensions. Hence, Sufi Time means to be “present” in a place and time free from the regulations of ordinary place and time. It has its own existential features and characteristics. The main objective of the present article is to explore what the sense, quality, quiddity, and ontological respects of Sufi Time are, and what spatial-temporal features it has; the features that, eventually, at the mind of a Sufi will develop the time and space (the Present Moment- world of Dominion) which “coincidence” of the past, the present and the future, a contradiction in terms, is one of its features that dominates all his existential aspects. Regarding the research question, its history, and lack of related literature, the research method of the first part is descriptive-explanatory, and of the second part is descriptive-analytic. In doing so, we have relied on the views and terminology of mysticism so that we would unveil the meanings hidden in Iranian-Islamic mysticism and its rich culture. Manuscript Document
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        5 - Stylistics of the Iranian Ancient anecdote: the Study of Elements of Creating Content and Form Based on Two Tales from Jame’ al-Hekayat
        جمشيد  مظاهري آرمان  ماناسريان
        Iranians are the people with ancient traditions and culture. Their folkloric works are rich and reflective of their beliefs. So far, there have been various approaches to the study of folklore, each focusing on different aspects such as content, structure, style, langua Full Text
        Iranians are the people with ancient traditions and culture. Their folkloric works are rich and reflective of their beliefs. So far, there have been various approaches to the study of folklore, each focusing on different aspects such as content, structure, style, language, and so on. The present article studies “the unity of form and content” in popular tales, concentrating on two of them, chosen from Jame’ al-Hekayat. Its main purpose, which distinguishes it from the previous researches on the subject, is to find the relationship between content and form, the way they match in the course of a tale, the process of forming a tale, and the elements involved in forming the Iranian ancient tales. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - A Critical Study of the Validity of Gulestan Based on the Theory of Critical Discourse Analysis
        سيامک  صاحبي محمد‌ها‌‌‌‌دي  فلاحي نسترن  توكلي
        With a discourse analysis approach in the field of linguistic study of literature, the present article queries the distribution of discourse-based structures in Saadi’s Gulestan at the level of phrases, sentences and texts in order to explore the degree of explicitnes Full Text
        With a discourse analysis approach in the field of linguistic study of literature, the present article queries the distribution of discourse-based structures in Saadi’s Gulestan at the level of phrases, sentences and texts in order to explore the degree of explicitness and implicitness of linguistic features used to express ideas in Gulestan , and to find the mystery of eternality of Sa’di’s speech. Presupposing that taking account of discourse structure can be helpful for understanding and interpreting a text, and relying on the fact that discourse is a meaningful linguistic unit having four features of systematicality, intentionality, objectivity, and being macro-linguistics, here in this article we have applied linguistic aspect of Van Leeuven’s model (1996) to find an answer to the question that what makes a work live on in cultural construction of different generations due to its linguistic features. Hence, after brief review of the relationship between literature and linguistics, we first introduce the subject and the research method. After that, critical discourse analysis and Van Livon’s model are introduced as basic concepts. This is followed by explaining the two categories of explicit and implicit features involved in Van Leeuven’s model. Dividing textual structure of Gulestan into two groups of narrative discourse-based and informative discourse-based structures, we analyze a text from the first chapter of Gulestan . Text analysis shows that in Gulestan the discourse-based features of implicitness such as deletion, passivization, de-personalization, referential and classificatory types are of high frequency in comparison with the features of implicitness. Measuring and explaining the degree of mysteriousness, we conclude that one reason for the eternality of Sa’di’s Gulestan is his use of the discourse-based features of implicitness. (Notice that here we deal with implicitness from a discourse approach not Gnostic and poetic one). This has made it possible for Sa’di to de-contextualize his narratives temporally, spatially, historically, politically; to hide their agents, actors, and patients, so communicate his own message through their speech prominently and effectively, and thereby make his work eternal for all centuries and generations. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - Teaching Farsi Compound Verbs to non-Persian Speakers
        زينب  محمد ابراهيمي حسن  شاهی‌پور
        The category of compound verbs is one of the most interesting, subtle and yet complex part of syntactic researches that has attracted the attentions of many linguists and teachers teaching a second/ foreign language. Analyzing the structure of compound verbs in spoken s Full Text
        The category of compound verbs is one of the most interesting, subtle and yet complex part of syntactic researches that has attracted the attentions of many linguists and teachers teaching a second/ foreign language. Analyzing the structure of compound verbs in spoken standard Farsi language in terms of Government and binding theory, and using a new scientific method of teaching language and vocabulary, the present research tries to provide a new practical and effective way of teaching Farsi compound verbs to the speakers of languages other than Farsi. According to the finding of the research, the compound verbs can be divided into two groups: one-argument verbs and multi-argument verbs. At elementary levels, it is better to start teaching with the first group. The second group should be taught at higher levels. Moreover, it seems appropriate to use spoken materials that have already been recorded in real communication contexts. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        8 - Short Message (SMSs) in New Esperanto A Form – Content Analysis
        ليلا  شريفي
        This paper investigates short messages, and the language resultant from abrivations made by the young people using mobile phones. Abrivation in language has many types, but what this article means by abrivation is the type the youth invented for saving time and ease of Full Text
        This paper investigates short messages, and the language resultant from abrivations made by the young people using mobile phones. Abrivation in language has many types, but what this article means by abrivation is the type the youth invented for saving time and ease of typing in sending messages. They have developed a literature that has broken the language rules, the rules governing pronunciation and grammar of standard languages. It knows no geographical boundary. It has signs of globalization. This research shows that dropping word letters in SMS is regular and predictable; the rules governing it are controlled by two phonological principles of “figure-ground” (Dressler 1996) and “strong-stronger” (Dongen 1978/1985). According to the Findings of the research, phonological principles controls decreasing the length of words in SMS, of course not considering suprasegmental elements. Manuscript Document
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        9 - Attitudes of the Poets of the Constitutional Period to Religion
        محمد  غلامرضایی زهره  ملّاکی
        In the constitutional period, when Islamic tradition and modern civilization faced each other, due to their differences, clergymen and intellectuals who were the effective social forces of the time reacted differently to it. Intellectuals were of three types: against re Full Text
        In the constitutional period, when Islamic tradition and modern civilization faced each other, due to their differences, clergymen and intellectuals who were the effective social forces of the time reacted differently to it. Intellectuals were of three types: against religion; pro-religion but with stress on instrumental use of it; and pro-religion believing in compatibility of Islam and modern civilization. Clergymen were of two types: conservatives, against modernity; and constitutionalists believing in compromise between Islam and democracy. This article, using the method of qualitative content analysis, and studying the poems of seven popular poets of this period, surveys their attitudes to religion. The research reveals three main current of thought among the poets: one places religion against modernity and believes that modernization demands total removal of religion from society. Other flow believes in eliminating most religious traditions, changing their function, and emphasizes just on faith dimension of religion. The third current accepts modernization on the ground of religious traditions, and supports the change and reform to some of them just through Ijtihad. This movement stresses the preservation of religion in society. Manuscript Document