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      • Open Access Article

        1 - Grammatical Metaphor: A New Criterion for Distinguishing the Language of Science and Literature
        حسین  رضویان ساجده  مبارکی
        One of the common concepts in systemic functional grammar of Michael Halliday is grammatical metaphor, generally introduced as a kind of metaphor. Halliday introduced and distinguished three grammatical metaphors: ideational, interpersonal and textual. This article revi Full Text
        One of the common concepts in systemic functional grammar of Michael Halliday is grammatical metaphor, generally introduced as a kind of metaphor. Halliday introduced and distinguished three grammatical metaphors: ideational, interpersonal and textual. This article reviewed the degree and method of applying different kinds of grammatical metaphors in scientific and literary texts. To do so, authors selected and analyzed one scientific work titled “an Introduction to Sociology of Language” by Yahya Modarresi and one literary text named “Tangsir” by Sadeq Chubak as their samples. Their findings showed that the degree of using different kinds of grammatical metaphors is not equal in scientific and literary texts. It seems that authors of scientific texts used grammatical metaphors to enrich contents, information summarization, making texts more technical for target audiences, making contents clearer and other reasons. The author of literary text used grammatical metaphors as few as possible. Abovementioned reasons do not apply in literary texts and this justifies its less usage. Therefore, the article attempts to introduce grammatical metaphor as a new criterion for distinguishing scientific and literary texts by providing enough proofs from these two texts. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Hermeneutic Criticism of Asiye Position (PBUH) in Mystical Texts: From 4th to the End of 7th Century
        حمیرا  زمردی فاطمه  حکیما
        Knowing religious heroes focusing on Hermeneutic and Decoding is a specific way to understanding truth and knowing existential levels. This method was used in mystical texts to approach author’s intention and uncovering hidden layers of texts. The study reviewed existen Full Text
        Knowing religious heroes focusing on Hermeneutic and Decoding is a specific way to understanding truth and knowing existential levels. This method was used in mystical texts to approach author’s intention and uncovering hidden layers of texts. The study reviewed existential levels and grades of Asiye, wife of Pharaoh, based on quotations of mystics from 4th century to the end of 7th century. Based on current documents, Asiye is a perfect woman determined a sample for all pious men and women by God. Mystics like Meybodi, Ein-al Qozat, Ibn Arabi and Molana assigned sublime levels like Utad, Abdal, Divine Favored Slave, Guardian, and God-Selected based on the gloss of Quran verses and hadiths, and considered her as one of Allah’s Caliph on Earth. She plots the necessary basis for Moses (PBUH) prophecy. Asiye’s (PBUH) prayer during her martyrdom was subject to mystical interpretations and showed her “Fana” (finitude) and Endiyat (Being in God’s presence). Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - The Review of Time Processing in Shams Ghazals: Applying Stream Of Consciousness Technique
        مینا  بهنام ابوالقاسم  قوام mohammad taghavi محمدرضا  هاشمی
        Some of Molavi’s ghazals have specific features that guide readers’ mind through intellectual basics of stream of consciousness works. The study reviewed the category of Time in Molavi’s ghazals using theoretical bases of this technique about Time. Research hypothesis i Full Text
        Some of Molavi’s ghazals have specific features that guide readers’ mind through intellectual basics of stream of consciousness works. The study reviewed the category of Time in Molavi’s ghazals using theoretical bases of this technique about Time. Research hypothesis is as follows: time warps, repetitive round trips to past and present time during every Ghazal and the importance of present time in creation moment of Molavi’s poem. We can divide time in his Ghazals, in a general categorization, to two linear-continuous and nonlinear- discontinuous kinds. Second kind of time closes Ghazals to stream of consciousness works. Measuring basis for time warps is start moment of Ghazal in the study. Molavi, based on rule of free association dominating his mental domain travels from present to past, past to present, and in some cases, travels to future reviewing past mementos and in some cases, time warps and round trips to past and present are so fast and continuous. This issue can affect language, narrative methods, kind of imagery and other cases in Ghazal. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Analyzing Literary Aspects of Tarikhe Beihaqi (Beihaqi’s History) Based on Walter "Benjamin Theory"
        مهدخت  پورخالقی چترودی سمیّه  عطاردی
        “Walter Benjamin”, whose name is associated with “Frankfurt School”, is a thinker who allows a dominion superior than practical and communicative dominions and in contrast with reductionism- that reduces language to an inter-subjective tool- he deals with theorization i Full Text
        “Walter Benjamin”, whose name is associated with “Frankfurt School”, is a thinker who allows a dominion superior than practical and communicative dominions and in contrast with reductionism- that reduces language to an inter-subjective tool- he deals with theorization in this field. In Benjamin’s view, language is superior than communicative action of human and gets an existential status; if we reduce language just to its communicative and instrumental trait, we would read the lines of texts and would never understand in-between texts. He applies “Assertive act” in contrast with communicative quality of language and believes that author can produce a literary text by entering into expressive dominion of language. Tarikh-e Beihaqi as a pure artistic work has great capacities to approach a language that has surpassed communicative trait and applies an expressive quality of language to express hidden meanings behind the words. The study dealt with this issue and concluded that Beihaqi produced a literary work with high literary competence based on expressive quality of language that one can interpret it poetically as he applied highlighting tools in lexical and semantic areas of language and the essence of poetry and poem in his work. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Serivili; The Captive of Twofold Contrasts (Reviewing Twofold Contrasts in The Poem of "Khanehy-e Serivili" (Serivili's Home) composed by Nima Yushij)
        siavash haghjou مرضیه  حقیقی  
        Twofold contrast is the most important basis of Structuralism that its theorists had applied it in different areas like linguistics, narratology, philosophy, cultural studies, anthropology, and psychology. Claude Lévi-Strauss used twofold contrasts to know general struc Full Text
        Twofold contrast is the most important basis of Structuralism that its theorists had applied it in different areas like linguistics, narratology, philosophy, cultural studies, anthropology, and psychology. Claude Lévi-Strauss used twofold contrasts to know general structure of human mind behind myths and different cultural actions and believed that these contrasts were the first human effort to understand his/her surrounding environment and the human existence were involved in these unavoidable twofolds. The study applied Lévi-Strauss thoughts in reading “Serivili's Home” of Nima Yushij. Serivili, the poet, is in contrast with an evil in this poem that is in opposition with all his thoughts. Oppositions like village/city, nature/culture, modernity/tradition, and in general consciousness and unconsciousness are depicted as oppositions between the poet and evil. Serivili is involved with tensions and oppositions that are resulted from conversation with evil and this continuous tension continues to the end of poem. Disobedient mind of Nima used twofold contrasts to express his most important intellectual differences, contrasts, and oppositions with owners of political power whose thoughts come to one’s conscious mind with evil symbols. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - The Relation of Temporality and Actors in Short Story of "Morde-Keshan Jozan" by Abolqasem Payande
        مولود  طلائي
        The study reviewed time and its application in “Morde-Keshan Jozan” short story by Abolqasem Payande. This basic element has specific manifests in this story. Narration process is linear that narrates present time looking to past and childhood mementoes. There is a di Full Text
        The study reviewed time and its application in “Morde-Keshan Jozan” short story by Abolqasem Payande. This basic element has specific manifests in this story. Narration process is linear that narrates present time looking to past and childhood mementoes. There is a direct relation between the frequency of page numbers and actors’ descriptions. When author intends to highlights morality inferiorities of his contemporary era, time would get circumlocution specifically and actors would emerge more than ever; but time summarization prevents author from this opportunity; then, it seems that actors’ descriptions would be summarized simultaneously with time. Authors of the study tried to critic the temporality of narration of this story based on “Gérard Genette” theory. The relation of its actors is expressed based on “Grimas” theory in final section and then the relation of these two elements is explained. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - The Status of Musicianship and Tradition of Verbal Narration in Old Persian Literature and Reviewing Historical Evolution of Composer-Narrators in the Process of Rhyming Heroic Narrations
         
        One of the main areas whose historical evolution was highly affected by composers and narrators from ancient time to Islamic era is Shahname-composing and verbal epics. Composing hymns and forming narrations and epic stories via combining and quoting broadcasting of the Full Text
        One of the main areas whose historical evolution was highly affected by composers and narrators from ancient time to Islamic era is Shahname-composing and verbal epics. Composing hymns and forming narrations and epic stories via combining and quoting broadcasting of these narrations had made many epic stories. Ancient kinds of narrators like musicians, singers and minstrels were replaced by later narrators of later eras like narrator-nightingales and storytellers; forming written literature based on oral (i.e. unwritten) literature is the most important feature in this area. This article dealt with the status of oral narration tradition in ancient Iran and continuing of literary traditions related to this in Shahname-composing and forming oral Persian epics in Islamic Era Literature and reviewed the role of these narrator-composers in process of rhyming epic narrations. Manuscript Document