• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - “Nobat” Reading An Approach to Michael Riffaterre Semiotics of Poetry
           
        Colloquial poetry is one of the prominent trends in contemporary poetry. This kind of poem, in which induced speech act is the most important factor in communication between text and reader, is audience-oriented. In this paper, “Nobat”, a generative and open poem from “ More
        Colloquial poetry is one of the prominent trends in contemporary poetry. This kind of poem, in which induced speech act is the most important factor in communication between text and reader, is audience-oriented. In this paper, “Nobat”, a generative and open poem from “Safar be kheyr” Collection by Seyyed Ali Salehi, is investigated by descriptive-analytical method with an approach to Michael Riffaterre Semiotics of Poetry. The purpose of this study is to understand the capacity and a new reading of colloquial poetry. In heuristic reading of “Nobat”, which is based on direct signs, the final implication of the poem is an explicit description of combined senses of leaving and grief. But, in another reading of the poem, in which Riffaterre’s theoretical framework is employed, a reader moves from marked and indirect signs of the narrative space to a political-emotional space; as if death is the ultimate indication of poetry and imprisonment - chanting – death is a cycle in accordance with non-grammatical elements, accumulations, descriptive systems, hypograms, and the intertextual space of Shamloo's voice and the sound of two poems by "Ahmad Reza Ahmadi" and "Hafez Mousavi" with similar implications network of death.. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - A Comparative Analysis of Five Adapted Films of Iranian Cinema and their Respective Literary Works
        Siavash Golshiri Nafiseh Moradi
        In this research, the literary adaptations and the adaptation techniques in the cinema of the eighties in Iran will be discussed and therefore, five cinematic films of the eighties (‘White Nights’, ‘Gav Khouni’, ‘I Saw Your Dad Last Night Aida’, ‘This is Winter’, ‘The R More
        In this research, the literary adaptations and the adaptation techniques in the cinema of the eighties in Iran will be discussed and therefore, five cinematic films of the eighties (‘White Nights’, ‘Gav Khouni’, ‘I Saw Your Dad Last Night Aida’, ‘This is Winter’, ‘The Reward of Silence’) have been compared with the works of the fiction which the scripts of the mentioned films are based on, respectively. These works of fiction are: ‘White Nights’, ‘Gav Khouni’, ‘Nora's Dad’, ‘Voyage’, ‘I am Your Son's Murderer’. This research is aimed to study and analyze these fictional works with their adapted cinematic films in regard to the narrative axis of the work, the manner in which a cinematic film borrows from a fictional work, the manner in which the text markers of the story are turned into the movie pictorial signs and at the same time kept loyal to the origin of the work. Furthermore, the interpretative effort in converting subjectivity to objectivity and subject to object or Vice versa in the process of changing the script to the movie, has been analyzed in order to Indicate the extent to which the mentioned works were successful in adapting their designated novel or short story. Also this paper is aimed to answer a main question which is the defining the characteristics of a successful adaptation of a work of fiction into a movie and the features that should be chosen to make the adapted movie favored. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - The Classical Approach of “Yaghma Magazine to the Fiction”
        صفیه  جمالی Habibollah Abbasi Moradali Vaezi  Vaezi
        A general belief about the modern story in Persian fiction is that this genre, unlike modern poetry, has never been subjected to the critique of traditionalists in its evolutionary process. The present article claims that the story has gone through similar difficulties More
        A general belief about the modern story in Persian fiction is that this genre, unlike modern poetry, has never been subjected to the critique of traditionalists in its evolutionary process. The present article claims that the story has gone through similar difficulties as modern poetry. To determine the classical approach to fiction, this research has chosen Yaghma Magazine which has indisputable classical approach. Categories such as old and new genres fiction, the commentaries on storytelling and authors published in Yaghma Magazine are analyzed. The results of this research show that Yaghma considers the contemporary fiction as the sequence of its classic forms of storytelling in Persian literature. Therefore, the observance of the rules and principles of modern narrative is not required and furthermore, following the classical rhetorics is counted as an advantage. Since the mission of the story is education and entertainment, in many cases in this magazine, pseudo stories take the place of the fiction and even an ancient genre, such as the fable, occupies much of the fictional literature of this magazine. Yaghma’s stories, apart from the works of translation, is divided into two categories: Historical stories based on classical works, whose structure is inspired by classical literature and stories that have been formed by the influence of Western literature, still trying to draw closer to their Iranian identity. Another point is that Yaghma has not published a story from any of the famous and well-known persian writers other than Jamalzadeh. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - The Nature of the Dark Romanticism in the Persian Poetry of the 1950s
          Reza Satari  
        One of the most important literary currents that was strengthened in Iran's poetry in the 1950s following the coup d'état of August 19, 1953 was romanticism that prevailed the field of poetry. Dark themes became commonplace with extreme and unprecedented emotions; theme More
        One of the most important literary currents that was strengthened in Iran's poetry in the 1950s following the coup d'état of August 19, 1953 was romanticism that prevailed the field of poetry. Dark themes became commonplace with extreme and unprecedented emotions; themes that diverted this version of romanticism from the essence of lyric which often meant that the poets either speak of death of love, or brought it down to its lowest level. These poems, belonging to a current known as dark romanticism, reflect themes such as thoughts of death, feeling of being cursed, rebellion, declaring sin, disbelief and immorality, Satanism, despair, and so on. Some scholars have defined these poems as lyrical romanticism, while lyrical and dark romanticism have fundamental differences, including in their world views, themes and contextual factors. In this article, after examining the nature of dark romanticism and its sentimentalism in Iran, common dark themes in the poems of some poets such as Nader Naderpour, Nosrat Rahmani, Karo, Hasan Honarmandi, Hamid Mosadegh and Forough Farrokhzad are evaluated. The results of the study shows that, with regard to the focus on themes such as thinking of death, disappointment and despair, rebellion and being cursed, fear, satanism, addiction and inebriation, and opposing the ethics and social norms, disbelief and denunciation of love in the poetry of dark romanticism, these poems cannot be identified as lyrical romanticism. Accordingly, romantic and sensual poetry of the 1950s was divided into two categories which is lyrical and non-lyrical romanticism. Manuscript Document
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        5 - The Analysis of the Themes and Linguistic Elements in the Satirical poems of Gholam Reza Rouhani
          ali akbar bagheri khalili ahmad qanipour malakshah
        The satire of "Gholam reza Rouhani", while reflecting the social conditions of Iran during the first Pahlavi and early Pahlavi II periods, is an illustration of the author's co-existence and sympathy with the masses and is linguistically and sociologically significant. More
        The satire of "Gholam reza Rouhani", while reflecting the social conditions of Iran during the first Pahlavi and early Pahlavi II periods, is an illustration of the author's co-existence and sympathy with the masses and is linguistically and sociologically significant. The present article, with a descriptive-analytical approach, aims to investigate the most important theme of satire in Rouhani's poems, his attitude towards social issues and their representation in his works. While presenting critical views on society and politics, Rouhani uses different linguistic and expressive elements to make the representations more artistic and influential. For instance, using lexical combination and semantic contradiction provides the appropriate framework for challenging discriminations as well as socio-political and ideological contradictions. The abundance of the folk words and compounds as a mean of expressing social issues in a popular language is one of the linguistic features of Rouhani’s satire. Since Rouhani's satire is simile-based, simile is more powerful in representing social issues and also in understanding it by the masses. Criticisms of the environmental conditions such as urban pollution and the lack of required infrastructures, the unveiling incident, the world war and its impacts on Iran, economic problems and some social issues, such as westernization, women's rights, unemployment and the bureaucratic complexity are some of the issues that are reflected in Rouhani’s satire. The analysis of the poet's satirical works reveals his social action to be modifing, changing or rejecting the hegemonic discourses. In some cases, such as the progress, education, and employment of women or the protection of national commodities, the poet often criticizes and rejects the situation of society and seeks to change that. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - A Hegelian Interpretation of the First Literary Manifests about Story and Novel in Iran (1871-1921)
        faramarz khojasteh yaser farashahinejad majid puyan
        Since the first comments of ‘Akhoond Zadeh’ up to the introduction of ‘Yeki Bood Yeki Nabood’ (once upon a time) by ‘Jamal Zadeh’, in a period of almost fifty years, we encounter with a few scattered speeches about story and novel, which has hardly gained any attention More
        Since the first comments of ‘Akhoond Zadeh’ up to the introduction of ‘Yeki Bood Yeki Nabood’ (once upon a time) by ‘Jamal Zadeh’, in a period of almost fifty years, we encounter with a few scattered speeches about story and novel, which has hardly gained any attention by the researches so far. These scattered notes could be considered as the first literary manifests about story and novel. In these critiques and comments some topics could be considered as the common ideas of writers and critics of that era. Moralism, realism and the profitability of novel are the three common topics of all these few speeches. Historical conditions and social changes of the constitutional era, prepared a space which only the purposeful literature could have flourished in. The first novels and novel critiques in Iran were formed in these situations and the purposefulness of story and novel was prioritized inevitably. Therefore, this article tries to interpret and analyze the first critiques and comments about story and novel in Iran based on Hegel’s aesthetics. Hegel and Hegelians considered the literary content more important than the literary form and emphasized the purposefulness and profitability of the novel. In this research, it is shown that the first critiques in Iran have much in common with Hegelian aesthetics. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - Analyzing themes of Resistance in the Folk Literature of the Persian Speaking Countries
        Reza  Chehreghani
        Although theorizing the resistance literature does not have much of a history and it does not go beyond the early twentieth and late nineteenth centuries, an overview of the literature of various nations shows that the themes of resistance have always been present in th More
        Although theorizing the resistance literature does not have much of a history and it does not go beyond the early twentieth and late nineteenth centuries, an overview of the literature of various nations shows that the themes of resistance have always been present in the official and folk literature of many ethnicities and nations. Despite this historical background, so far, there has not been a comprehensive, serious, and independent study to examine the themes of resistance in the oral literature of Muslim nations and this issue has been neglected, even in recent years, when research on the resistance literature has flourished. In response to this, the present article has tried using a descriptive-analytic method to examine the issue of resistance in the literature of the three Persian-speaking countries of Iran, Tajikistan and Afghanistan - which have experienced authoritarian governments and many domestic and foreign wars. The results of this research show that in Persian language, poetry of resistance was born in the tradition of folk poetry and folk literature, which is consistent with the targets of the resistance poetry due to the wide range of audiences and influence over the masses. Manuscript Document