• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Symbolism in Ave Sina’s Poem of Einiyyeh, and its Effect on the Thought of Muslim Gnostics
        علی  فتح اللهی علي  نظري
        How the human soul falls from the upper world and descends in the body cage is one of the complex philosophical and Gnostic debates. The duality of subtle spirit and dirty body is a matter of debate in most philosophical and Gnostic schools. Defending the duality doctri Full Text
        How the human soul falls from the upper world and descends in the body cage is one of the complex philosophical and Gnostic debates. The duality of subtle spirit and dirty body is a matter of debate in most philosophical and Gnostic schools. Defending the duality doctrine, like many other Muslim Gnostics, Ave Sina is considered as one of the pioneers in symbolically depicting the fall of the soul into the body. His Poem of Einiyyeh, among the works of Muslim scholars, follows such a view. The present article studies symbolism, its development, and the relevant factors in developing mystical-gnostic stories in the works of Muslim thinkers. The other focus of the research is to explore the traces of Gnosticism, neo-Platonism, and Akhavan-ol-Safa in the Poem of Einiyyeh, and their influence on its mystical concepts, and the compatibility of its symbolic language with the Sufi terms and expressions used by Muslim Gnostics, along with the study of the belonging of spirit to the upper world, its unwillingly Fall, and the duality of the soul and body. At the end, we will study the ways to set the everlasting subtle spirit free from the prison of the body. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - “Journey” in Gnostic Prose Texts
        هوشنگ  محمدي افشار
        Islamic Gnostics/ Sufism mainly originates from the Quran and the apostolic custom; and is based on piety and pure devotion, with the flavor of love. “Journeying” is one of the issues and traditions which in two levels of external and internal (spiritual) has been of g Full Text
        Islamic Gnostics/ Sufism mainly originates from the Quran and the apostolic custom; and is based on piety and pure devotion, with the flavor of love. “Journeying” is one of the issues and traditions which in two levels of external and internal (spiritual) has been of great importance and controversy for the Sufi elders and researchers. The present article studies the external journey during a long period of time, from the early stages of the development of Gnostics and Sufism up to the end of the 8th (Islamic) century. Types of journey, its motivations, advantages, goals and objectives, and requirements are studied according to the different views of the Sufis and other great figures of each period. The research was done by a descriptive-analytic method. In addition to reliance on the holy Quran and sacred sayings, we have also made references to the theoretical works on Sufism, and the biographies of the Sufi elders from the 5th to the 8th centuries. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - The Rulers’ Communications During the Mythical and Heroic Ages in Shahnameh
        سيدمحمد  دادگران مريم  صادقي گیوی khadijeh tatari
        Communication can be considered as the act of communicating meanings or exchanging messages. What distinguishes human communication from the other living beings’ is its principles and criteria to successful and efficient communication, and his ability to create and use Full Text
        Communication can be considered as the act of communicating meanings or exchanging messages. What distinguishes human communication from the other living beings’ is its principles and criteria to successful and efficient communication, and his ability to create and use symbols.The present article is to explain the development of human communication in Shahnameh until the heroic age. Aspects of human communication in Shahnameh include the rulers’ communication, the heroes’, and the people’s. The research focuses on the first type. The rulers’ communication can be studied in five levels: communication with other rulers, communication with people, communication with God, communication with nature, and communication with supernatural beings. The main concern of the present article is to study types of the rulers’ communication modes, their purpose of communication, and the result of their communication. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - The Influence of Hafiz on the Hungarian Literature
        Hafiz is the representative of the pick of the literary masterpieces of Persian language which sounds like a miracle. His poetry, which is based on the teachings of love and truth, is the reflection of infiniteness of the soul, and the symbol of the depth and meaningful Full Text
        Hafiz is the representative of the pick of the literary masterpieces of Persian language which sounds like a miracle. His poetry, which is based on the teachings of love and truth, is the reflection of infiniteness of the soul, and the symbol of the depth and meaningfulness of the human’s life. Hence, the familiar color of Hafiz’ poetry is comprehensible and loved by any sophisticated person, though the harmoniously interwoven net of its form and content does not lend itself to translation. The Europeans got to know the Persian language since the 17th century. Its background had already been provided by translations of Firdausi, Hafiz, Khayyam, and Sa’di. Hungarians became familiar with Hafiz first through Karoly Roytski’s translation in 1771. He was the ambassador of Austria-Hungary Empire to the Middle-East. The poems Roytski translated attracted the attentions of most Hungarian poets and literati. Since then other parts of Hafez have been translated by Hungarian translators from Persian language. Some published as books; Some entered in complexes among the translations of other Iranian or Eastern poets. It is the first time in Iran that a publication is dedicated to the study of the translation of Hafiz in Hungarian language. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - A Survey to the Study of Khayyam during the 14th Century
        كاووس  حسن‌لي Saeed Hessampour
        A big variety of woks have been appeared about Omar Khayyam, the Iranian scientist and poet, which study his prominent works and particularly his Ruba’iyat (quartets). Yet, there are lots of basic gaps in the process of this study. In a general view, we can divide the w Full Text
        A big variety of woks have been appeared about Omar Khayyam, the Iranian scientist and poet, which study his prominent works and particularly his Ruba’iyat (quartets). Yet, there are lots of basic gaps in the process of this study. In a general view, we can divide the writings on Khayyam, historically into two periods: writings before the year 1300 (Iranian Year), and writings after the year 1300. There are lots of controversies among the literature on Khayyam before this period. Development of the literature on Khayyam after 1300 was mostly influenced by Fitz Gerald’s translation of Ruba’iyat from Farsi into English because it not only attracted the world’s attention to Khayyam and Iran, but also caused Iranian researchers to do their researches carefully and with more speculation. However, the controversies among the ancient literature, as well as diverse views among the researchers resulted in different approaches to the point in the field of modern studies of Khayyam. The authors of the present article, in the course of a research project which lasted nearly three years, studied all the original Iranian works appeared between 1300 and 1380 about Khayyam, as well as ones translated into Farsi from other languages. What here is presented is a general survey to the study of Khayyam during the current century. The article provides Time and Content tables and figures. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Plant Fairies
        سيد محمد  برفر
        Among the subset of the fairy-tales genre, there is one type classified as No. 410 under Arne-Thompson classification. The narrative is centered on a young boy attaining a magic garden gets the fruits out of which emerge beautiful fairies. The tale is narrated in differ Full Text
        Among the subset of the fairy-tales genre, there is one type classified as No. 410 under Arne-Thompson classification. The narrative is centered on a young boy attaining a magic garden gets the fruits out of which emerge beautiful fairies. The tale is narrated in different versions around the world. Having gathered the stories narrated among different nations, the author in this article, tires to explore the rules governing these tales, and explain their universal motifs regarding their mythological origins. According to the findings of the present article, these tales and the myths behind them are reflections of the humans’ beautiful imagination on personification and attributing life to the nature. Moreover, the magic garden which the protagonist attains could be a mythological symbol of the Paradise Lost. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - A Critical Study of Bidel’s Thoughts Reflected in One of His Sonnets
        ali mohammadi
        Bidel’s fame and greatness is not limited just to the manner of expressing his thoughts and its linguistic subtlety. Part of the glory of his poetry originates from his thoughts which is as mysterious and symbolic as his language. If we took it for granted that there is Full Text
        Bidel’s fame and greatness is not limited just to the manner of expressing his thoughts and its linguistic subtlety. Part of the glory of his poetry originates from his thoughts which is as mysterious and symbolic as his language. If we took it for granted that there is stylistic prominence at the semantic level of Bidel’s poetry, we could ask how the prominent features could be realized in the form of sonnet. When sonnet as a literary form is a place to express lyricism, how thought and love are put together there? Regarding the factor of thought, can Bidel’s sonnets be treated as a special kind of sonnet? At the present article, having studied one of the Bidel’s famous sonnets critically, with special focus on its content and the thoughts involved, we have come to the conclusion that just as the poetry of Hindi Style is distinguished in terms of its form, it is distinguished in terms of its content; and this fact is evident in Bidel’s sonnets as the famous exemplar of this style. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        8 - A Shift from the Oral Culture to the Written Culture in Women’s Writings (From Naseri period to the Constitutional period)
        مریم  عاملی رضایی
        In the literary history of Iran, there can be found samples of women’s writings, most of which are in prose. Until the Naseri period, the very few writings were limited to jurisprudence, litanies and prayers. Two travelogues and one critical-social writing are available Full Text
        In the literary history of Iran, there can be found samples of women’s writings, most of which are in prose. Until the Naseri period, the very few writings were limited to jurisprudence, litanies and prayers. Two travelogues and one critical-social writing are available relating to the Naseri period. The writing mode of these texts reveals that the women at that time were not familiar with the common frames of formal writing. They wrote in a female intimate environment and employed a spoken language. At the Constitutional period, as women made their presence felt in society, they did so in the field of prose writing. Publishing their letters, particularly in women’s journals of the time, gave them an opportunity to experience formal written language. Women’s language entered a public zone. Their highly frank and open language which had been formed during centuries at an intimate female atmosphere, and under the influence of oral literature, was refined and distanced itself from the words that were supposed to be offensive for the public usage. In this way a civilized language of women was formed that followed the norms of the dominant culture of the time. So, one could claim that women’s presence at the society coincided with their transition from the field of oral literature to the field of written literature. Manuscript Document