• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Comparative Analysis of "Tiny Characters" in Folk Legends of Iran, Germany and Japan
        minoo hamedanizadeh soheila farhangi
        “Tiny characters” are among lovely and specific characters in world folk legends. They are very small children who have vegetable or human roots and are born into families that have longed for children, like “Nokhodi” in Iranian folklore legends. These characters can b More
        “Tiny characters” are among lovely and specific characters in world folk legends. They are very small children who have vegetable or human roots and are born into families that have longed for children, like “Nokhodi” in Iranian folklore legends. These characters can be seen not only in the tales of our country but also in the legends of other nations and can be considered and studied. Thus, this research aims to study and analyze Tiny characters, comparing them and defining their characteristics.Here to achieve this goal, we used Iranians’ folk legends, gathered by Fazl-o-allah Mohtadi (Sobhi), such as “Nokhodoo”, “Jastik Nokhodi” and “Nokhodi and Deev”. Also German folk legends written by Grimm Brothers, such as “Tom thumb”, “Thumb and Thumbling”; and Japanese folk legends written by Shogo Hirata and Florence Sakade, such as “Peach boy, Little One-Inch, Little One-Inch ” are used.This research tries to show the similarities and differences of Tiny characters in the folk legends of Iran and the world with a descriptive-analytical method and with the approach of comparative literature. These similarities can be found in the vegetable origin of most of these characters and their ethical features such as confidence, responsibility, braveness, intelligence, justice seeking, fighting against oppression and so on. There are also small differences in the type of their birth, how to achieve the goals, etc., which can be considered. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - A Comparative Study and Analysis of the Antichrist in Persian Poetry and Islamic Traditions
        Elham Nazary Esmail Tajbakhsh
        The issue of the Antichrist has been mentioned in most religions and his sedition has been reminded to the prophets as first mentioned of him in the Epistle of John. According to John, the Antichrist is any one who has different opinions about the embodiment of Christ, More
        The issue of the Antichrist has been mentioned in most religions and his sedition has been reminded to the prophets as first mentioned of him in the Epistle of John. According to John, the Antichrist is any one who has different opinions about the embodiment of Christ, and any spirit that denies the embodiment of Jesus is the Antichrist. But the background to the formation of the concept of the Antichrist can be found in the apocalyptic and revelationtic discussions of the early periods of Jewish history, especially in the book of Daniel. This issue has been mentioned in various forms in Islamic texts and some possibilities have been given about its origin. Some believe that he is a person and some believe that he is a type and a description.With the introduction of Quranic and Islamic themes in Persian literature, themes related to the Antichrist have also been used by poets and have been reflected in their poetry. The poets' intention in expressing these themes was not merely an allusion, but they used them to express their views in the form of similes, metaphors and symbols. Although the Antichrist is a hated figure and has not been widely reflected in Persian poetry; Nevertheless, this reflection is low, special and significant. In Persian poetry, "the person of the Antichrist" is predominant and poets do not pay attention to other possibilities given about him in Islamic texts. This article has examined the reflection of the Antichrist in two areas of Islamic texts and Persian poetry in separate sections and, in conclusion, has made a comparison between these two areas in this regard. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - A Comparative Study of Bouransasani’s Monarchy in The Ferdowsi’s Shahname and Historical Sources (in a Critical Review of a Challenging Verse)
        Akram Joudi Nemati
        Bouran became as the ruler of Sassanid Empire just before downfall of the empire and she was praised in Shahnameh; however, at the beginning of Bouran’s reign, Ferdowsi quotes: “there was a girl named Bouran/ things do not go well, when a woman becomes king”. This verse More
        Bouran became as the ruler of Sassanid Empire just before downfall of the empire and she was praised in Shahnameh; however, at the beginning of Bouran’s reign, Ferdowsi quotes: “there was a girl named Bouran/ things do not go well, when a woman becomes king”. This verse has an obvious contradiction with next verses and and according to this verse, it seems that the decay of empire at that time was a result of her reign. In order to answer to the question of "which of the two contradictions is true" and "what could be the cause of the mentioned contradiction", the article author has compared the Shahnameh's claim about Bouran's statecraft with historical sources. Research data show that there’s no report of inefficiency in Bouran’s governance, and all historians, in more detail than Ferdowsi, have reported her governing as good. So, why did Ferdowsi compose such a poem? The author, by proposing related hypotheses, concludes that this verse is not related to how Bouran governs, but it has been due to Ferdowsi's commitment to the presuppositions that were formed in related to the religious beliefs in his time. Tracing the presuppositions leads us to a hadith of the Prophet (PBUH): "A nation that leaves its affairs to a woman will never be successful.” The hadith documents do not confirm its validity, and its not even mentioned about in early Shiite sources; But its socio-cultural shadow has led to the presumption that if a woman becomes monarch, the country will be ruined. So, the poet has remained in contradiction between those historical facts and this social presupposition, and the result has been a contradiction in composing the story of Bouran. However, the Shahnameh as a whole, does not confirm the society negative view to the women. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - A Study on How "Odors"are Descibed in Persian Written Texts
        azam estaji
        The present paper studies how odors are described in selected data from Persian written texts. For this purpose, instances of the use of the word "odor" and its dependents were extracted from two written corpus (including news and fiction texts, with about nine million More
        The present paper studies how odors are described in selected data from Persian written texts. For this purpose, instances of the use of the word "odor" and its dependents were extracted from two written corpus (including news and fiction texts, with about nine million words) and were classified and described based on structural and semantic features. Examination of the data shows that odors in Persian are described more with Ezafet constructions than descriptive constructions (82% vs. 18%). Regarding the method of describing odors, it was also found that Persian speakers prefer to describe odors with reference to their origin rather than using adjectives. In addition, it was found that in Ezafet constructions where odor is described with an noun, odor finds metaphorical usage and is used figuratively to mean "effect and sign". Regarding the adjectives used to describe odors, it was found that on the one hand there are limited adjectives to describe odors and on the other hand these adjectives can be semantically divided into three categories: pleasant adjectives, unpleasant adjectives and adjectives that emphasize odor specificity. In addition, the comparison of the two data sets showed that in the data extracted from news texts, the ratio of metaphorical use of smell was higher and in the data extracted from fictional texts, the ratio of describing smell by referring to its origin was higher, this difference can be explained by the nature of the texts being analyzed. Manuscript Document
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        5 - Stylistic Study and Analysis of Black Humor in Short Stories by Bahram Sadeghi
        nayereh shateri mahboobeh khorasani morteza rashidi
        Black humor is a form of comedy that seeks to show suffering and boredom, anonymity and emptiness, worriment and death anxiety, and fear and loneliness of contemporary man through satire. Bahram Sadeghi is one of the novelists who carefully and delicately used the abili More
        Black humor is a form of comedy that seeks to show suffering and boredom, anonymity and emptiness, worriment and death anxiety, and fear and loneliness of contemporary man through satire. Bahram Sadeghi is one of the novelists who carefully and delicately used the ability and capacity of black humor and has used this literary device in his short stories, which were mainly written between 1965 and 1962 and published in the collection of stories "Sangar va Ghoghomehaye Khali (its translation in English:Trench and EmptyThermoses)". The main question of the research is what are the stylistic features of black humor in Bahram Sadeghi's short stories and what methods has the author used to include black humor in the stories and what goals has he pursued? In response, it should be said that Sadeghi has highlighted black humor in his stories by using contradiction, miniaturization, magnification, Gothic atmosphere and deviation from the subject. He has sought to indirectly reflect the issues of his time, to reveal the reality of life by criticizing obsessive disorders, political conflicts and cultural petrifications and to represent his perception of life experience. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Analysis of Women's Storytelling after the Islamic Revolution Based on the Cognitive Current
        sepideh seyyed faraji Farhad Tahmasbi Ruqayyah Sadraie
        After the victory of the Islamic Revolution, women's storytelling has developed. Both the number of female writers has increased and the themes of the stories have become more diverse. The political and social atmosphere after the revolution has also provided the ground More
        After the victory of the Islamic Revolution, women's storytelling has developed. Both the number of female writers has increased and the themes of the stories have become more diverse. The political and social atmosphere after the revolution has also provided the ground for the expansion and diversity of women's storytelling. In most of what women have written, the focus of the story and characters is on the issue of women. Some women in their stories search for their feminine selves and reflect this identification from the perspective of female narratives; This section of women's works deals with female narratives that describe the female world (in terms of identity, emotion, gender, etc.). Some of the works of women reflect the political and social issues of the time. In these stories, the role of women in politics and society is generally shown, most of these stories refer to the role of women in the revolution and the war. Some female writers also write popular narratives of life and society for audiences that are generally female. A number of other women narrate the contrast between tradition and modernity, sometimes arguing for tradition and sometimes protesting against prevailing traditions and beliefs. This study has been done to identify and introduce the currents of women's storytelling in the post-revolutionary years. Therefore, based on a cognitive current model, this reserch categorizes and introduces several currents of women's storytelling. To separate and recognize the currents, three factors have been considered: first, the political and social context of the emergence of the current is introduced, then the focal points of the current are shown, and finally, the initiators and continuators of the current are discussed. Manuscript Document