Grammaticalization is a process through which a lexical item changes into a grammatical morpheme. Semantic changes of a free morpheme along with the categorical and phonological changes result in structural function in the syntax of a language, and the former lexical it More
Grammaticalization is a process through which a lexical item changes into a grammatical morpheme. Semantic changes of a free morpheme along with the categorical and phonological changes result in structural function in the syntax of a language, and the former lexical items are used to express abstract grammatical concepts such as tense, aspect, and mood. In all languages, body part words as a part of lexical sources are very frequent, and have a vast semantic network. The role of these free lexical items in the process of grammaticalization has been documented by various researchers, and it has been shown that some of the body part words have been changed into adposition by moving through the continuum of grammaticalization and after a change in their core meaning. This research tries to investigate the body part word "face" and the pattern of changes in this free lexical item in Persian language system within the framework of the grammaticalization process. To do so, the different simple, derived and derived compound forms of "face" in Anvari Allegory Dictionary(1383) and FarsNet have been studied to answer the following questions: 1)what is the continuum of the changes in body part word "face" in the process of grammaticalization, and 2) what are the semantic, morphosyntactic, and categorical outcomes of grammaticalization of this word? The results show that this word has undergone the grammaticalization process like other body part words and even progressed more. This word not only refers to "face" (core meaning), it has also undergone semantic generalization and hierarchical pejoration, and participated in new structures and functions. The ending point of changes of this face is its function as compound subordinate conjunction in conditional forms and contrastive expressions. This word has gone so beyond its core meaning as subordinate conjunction that no sign of the former core meaning as body part word "face" is available.