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No 50
Vol. 50 No. 3
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The music of poetry is what makes the verse interesting. This factor is manifested in a unique way in Sultan Walad Ghazals, which is highly represented in the phonetic balance. The poet has increased the variety in rhythm using quantitative balance regarding metric features and using different meters. Sultan Walad has created special kind of rapture and fascination in his Ghazals using the cyclic meter in a way that cyclic meter is most frequent in the fast rhythms of this kind of poem. In the application of qualitative phonetic balance, he uses repetition, and by repeating different Persian vowels and consonants he has increased the aesthetic feature of his Ghazals. The long vowel /a/ is very frequent while /o/ is the least frequent vowel in his use of repetition. Sultan Walad has created rhythmic aspects in his poems by the application of vowel and consonant repetition while the most frequent repetition is in the initial consonant and the least frequent is the repetition of the initial vowel and consonant. The poet's use of repetition is more obvious in the rhyme. Therefore, it can be said that Sultan Walad has created a special kind of music in his Ghazals using different kinds of balance, regarding same sounds (including consonants), and same letters which can be studied from different aspects. An analytical-descriptive method is used in this research through which we have identified phonetic balance in Sultan Walad’s Ghazals, and in addition to analyzing each, we measured and showed the frequencies using charts and tables.
zeynab tajik - vahid alibaygi sarhali
Keywords : Sultan Walad ، phonetic balance ، Classic poems ، Ghazals ، music of poetry
Grammaticalization is a process through which a lexical item changes into a grammatical morpheme. Semantic changes of a free morpheme along with the categorical and phonological changes result in structural function in the syntax of a language, and the former lexical items are used to express abstract grammatical concepts such as tense, aspect, and mood. In all languages, body part words as a part of lexical sources are very frequent, and have a vast semantic network. The role of these free lexical items in the process of grammaticalization has been documented by various researchers, and it has been shown that some of the body part words have been changed into adposition by moving through the continuum of grammaticalization and after a change in their core meaning. This research tries to investigate the body part word "face" and the pattern of changes in this free lexical item in Persian language system within the framework of the grammaticalization process. To do so, the different simple, derived and derived compound forms of "face" in Anvari Allegory Dictionary(1383) and FarsNet have been studied to answer the following questions: 1)what is the continuum of the changes in body part word "face" in the process of grammaticalization, and 2) what are the semantic, morphosyntactic, and categorical outcomes of grammaticalization of this word? The results show that this word has undergone the grammaticalization process like other body part words and even progressed more. This word not only refers to "face" (core meaning), it has also undergone semantic generalization and hierarchical pejoration, and participated in new structures and functions. The ending point of changes of this face is its function as compound subordinate conjunction in conditional forms and contrastive expressions. This word has gone so beyond its core meaning as subordinate conjunction that no sign of the former core meaning as body part word "face" is available.
Sedigheh Poormaleki - Mojtaba Monshizadeh - Arsalan Golfam - Ferdows Aghagolzadeh
Keywords : grammaticalization ، lexical word ، semantic change ، category change ، body part words
Equation and the condition of Reductio ad absurdum (reduction to absurdity) are among the most important and most frequent types of allegory in Hindi style. In Hindi style the poets have used these literary devices to make general and abstract concepts tangible and to induce their subjects to their audiences. In order to do so, the use of different forms of these literary devices has satisfied their linguistic needs in expressing the meaning intended. Using equation and the condition of Reductio ad absurdum reinforces the content of the discourse, and confirms a collective thought, and it contributes to the readers' understanding. In this research, various types of equation and the condition of Reductio ad absurdum have been studied, and their functions, content, and forms have been investigated. The research is based on the use of these literary devices in the prominent works in Hindi style through considering the views of the scholars and the author's personal perception of these literary devices. The results show that the equation and the condition of Reductio ad absurdum have been used in Hindi style to meet the need for uttering the experiences, thoughts, and mystical concepts in a meaningful way. Therefore, they can be regarded as prominent rhetorical features of the literary works in the Hindi era in Persian poetry.
Keywords : equation ، Reductio ad absurdum ، allegory ، argument ، Hindi style
The present paper aims at studying the relationship between language and cultural conceptualizations in Rumi’s poems. In order to do so, the cultural linguistics theory adapted for identifying the cultural-metaphorical system of Persian language as well as the historical and mythological model of "water and fire". Water and fire representations are quite frequent in the six chapters of Masnavi-e Ma’navi and in Divan-e Shams. Rumi has referred to the Classical elements in 1888 verses. He used water in 524 verses and fire in 574 verses. Water and fire as two opposing elements of the classical elements have two distinct characteristics in the natural world. But these two elements have supernatural features and depict a kind of long-standing contradiction of mind and love in literary concepts and metaphors, especially the mystical ones when occurred within one verse. The purpose of this study is to achieve an understanding of the cognition through the utilization of container schema of the words Del (heart), head, and eye. By investigating the functions of these schemata, a more accurate understanding of the individual and social characteristics of this poet would be obtained. The main achievements of this research are as follows: 1. In Persian literature, Del represents intuitive understanding, and the eye represents the apparent senses (five senses) and is the most frequent tool for the perception of reality. The frequency of Del schema in Rumi's poems compare to the eye schema somehow shows Rumi's intuitive personality. 2. Head in Persian is the container of concepts related to thought, but in the Rumi's poems, it is the container of the terms related to love. The concept of love as an entity in the head as the container has been expressed in different words in the poems of Rumi. Analyzing these words expresses passionate love and, to some extent, the love between friends in Rumi's emotional view.
fariba sadeghi - roya sedigh ziabari - reza kheirabadi
Keywords : Rumi ، Masnavi ، Divan-e Shams ، contradiction ، container schema
Nafsat-al-Masdoor by Zeidari Nasavy, has often been considered a text which narrates some parts of the historical reality of the Mongol invasion in an emotional way. However, in this paper, authors try to indicate that the author, Zeidari, distorted some facts about this historic event. This was made possible by the opportunity that was given to him because of his status in the royal court. When he became sure that it’s the end of the previous sovereigns, using experiences gained in writing Sire-Jalal-Aldin, and taking advantage of his position in the court, he wrote Nafsat-al-Masdoor as an evidence of his innocence of the charge of escaping from the Mongol invasion. Using textual evidence and close reading of the text, it has been found that Zeidari has purposefully changed the reality by taking advantage of the genre he has chosen for his narrative, namely "historical narration," and in this way, he has been able to conquer the minds of his readers. These strategies begin with the gathering of four elements of nature (water, wind, soil, and fire) and utilizing the structure of Qasida in prose and proceeding to verbiage and finally preventing the formation of dialogue.
nasrin faghih - zahra saberi
Keywords : Nafsat-al-Masdoor ، Zeidari Nasavy ، Mongol invasion ، close reading ، Monophony

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