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No 53
Vol. 53 No. 2
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Ancient literary stories must be told in a simple and fluent language in order to be compelling and comprehensible to today's audience. The process of narrating these tales in contemporary language should be in accordance with the principles that have two main axes: First, maintaining the structure of the story and the style of the author, and second, its conforming to the audience’s language and understanding. In this regard, rewriting and returning the stories of Shahnameh to prose, in addition to paying attention to the level of the audience, also requires knowledge about Ferdowsi's style and expression. On the other hand, attention should be paid to summarizing and simplifying stories. Each of the Shahnameh's rewrites has some degrees of summarizing and omitting story or artistic effects. But the omission of some sections damages the original structure of the story, does not reveal Ferdowsi's art in composing stories for the audience. There are several ways to convey these points and the story to the audience as completely as possible. Considering the linkage of the Shahnameh headers with the structure of the story, our suggestion in this article is to use this manuscripts of the Shahnameh based on their headings. As a notable example, we have used the Florence version, which is the oldest available version of the Shahnameh and while reviewing some of the problems in rewriting this work, we have provided solutions for more accurate rewriting.
Keywords : rewriting ، Shahnameh ، header ، Florence version ، story structure
It is important to analyze the lexicological-phonological processes of the present stem in order to evaluate the generative capacity of each phonological process. The present article aims to identify and describe the lexicological-phonological processes in simple verbs with the initial vowel of standard Farsi after adding the continuous prefix / mi/. The research method is descriptive-analytical. In this research, in the method of data collection, there are 50 verbs out of 323 verbal roots based on Tabataba'i (1997), Dehkhoda Dictionary (2011), and Sokhan Dictionary (2003) which begin with vowels. The data have been transcribed according to the International Phonetic Alphabet "I.P.A" and then analyzed in the framework of generative phonological theory. Results show that in written or formal Farsi, "Hamza" or the glottal stop [ʔ] is added to verbs that begin with vowel and for this reason, they begin with "A"; but after adding the continuous prefix / mi- /, "Hamza" is not inserted in the spoken or informal Farsi and instead, the front vowel shortening process, raising /i/ and gliding as short vowel sequence and gliding [-ej-] and then raising the front central vowel [e] before gliding [j] as vowel sequence and glide [-ij-] are observed. In such structures, in the informal speech, there is no "Hamza" or the glottal stop [ʔ] in the verb structure.
shahin Amirjani - Aliyeh Kord Zafaranlu kambuzia - Arezu Najafian
Keywords : continuous prefix ، Lexicological-Phonological Processes ، Generative Phonology ، Raising Vowels ، Shortening Vowels
The anomalies or deviation is one of the aspects of "resurrection of vocabulary" based on linguistics and it is one of the new literary criticism theories proposed within the framework of the Russian school of formalism. Orfi Shirazi, the Indian style poet, has created the Ghazal language of this style beyond the norm of his time and he has been sometimes created an individual style and new norm in the language of the Ghazal.Therefore, the words have a variable resurrection in the imagery and semantic creation of the early Indian lyric style and Orfi Shirazi, as one of the early lyricists of Indian style, has created phenomena in a wide variety of ways in the imagination and he has challenged the mind of the audience in confronting the ups and downs of the Ghazal's image. This research was conducted with the aim of explaining the new techniques of imagination and semantics in Orfi Shirazi Ghazal with a descriptive-analytical approach and relying on the semantic deviation of "Leech"and has shown he has created techniques of semantic deviation with rhetorical and meaningful images in Ghazal. Accordingly, explanation of the semantic deviation on the imagination of Orfi in the Ghazal and the explanation of how words are used in the structure of new images, is the main achievement of the research.
majid khosravi - - Mohammad Irani - Gholamreza Salemiyan
Keywords : Hindi Style ، Orfi Shirazi ، Geoffrey Leech ، Semantic Deviation ، Rhetorical images
Discourse analysis as a linguistic approach to social science examines how literary works relate to the social environment and how these environments influence their method and style. Discourse of “committed and social literature” is one of the well-known discourses in contemporary literature which is analyzed in this paper, using Laclau and Mouffe’s method. Here, the formation of this discourse and Akhavān-Sālesʾs approach to it has been studied. It is shown in this paper that the relationship between literature and society causes Akhavān-Sāles as subject to be influenced by linguistic and non-linguistic discourse functions and the power behind the discourse. He consolidated his discourse system by creating deconstruction in rival discourses (Moje-no, Individual Romance, and Formalist Literature) and understanding the empty pointers of non-own discourses (literature's attention and commitment to people and society). In the semantic system of his own discourse, he considers society and its needs (as an independent variable) including art and literature (as a dependent variable) and by emphasizing the centeral pointer of one’s own discourse, he defines other floating pointers (such as art, artist, Ghazal, poem and poet). Using some strategies mentioned in this research, he seeks to strengthen his own discourse and weaken non- own discourses.
Maryam Musharraf - kulthum Miriasl
Keywords : Discourse analysis ، Committed Literature ، Laclau ، Mouffe ، Akhavān-Sāles
Sheikh Mohebullah Mobarez, Pir Al-Ahabadi, is one of the Indian mystics of the 11th century AH, who has been greatly influenced by mysticism and the theory of the unity of existence of Ibn Arabi, the great mystic of the sixth century AH. He has written detailed and comprehensive explanations of Ibn Arabi's book "Fusus al-Hikam" in Persian and Arabic. The description of his Persian Fusus al-Hikam is a valuable book in which a great effort has been made to solve the ambiguities and difficulties of Fusus al-Hikam. This book, which is a Manuscript, has not been scientifically adapted and corrected before and not printed. One of the characteristics of this work is usage of some abandoned compounds and words in the period of growth and promotion of Persian language in the subcontinent. In this research, while introducing Alahabadi and his works, the abandoned words and phrases used in this book have been considered in terms of roots and grammatical rules, and their importance has been explained by mentioning the instances.
yaser hojjati najafabadi - mehrdad chatraei - Mahboubeh Khorasani
Keywords : Fusus al-Hikam, ، Allahabadi ، manuscript ، abandoned words ، theoretical mysticism

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