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No 52
Vol. 52 No. 1
2019
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Extracting components to determine the author's personal style is one of the things that can show the author's style more accurately and better based on measurable parameters. One of these parameters is the study of the relative frequency of a particular structure. In this regard, the study of the syllabic structure of the row and rhyme can be effective. For this purpose, this research has tried to determine the frequency of construction and the syllabic pattern of rows and rhymes in Hafez's poems. The study also aims to examine the extent to which Hafez uses each of the syllable structures in the row and rhyme and the arrangement of these structures in each syllable pattern. This research shows that the ratio of syllable construction in Hafez's poetry is somewhat in harmony with the natural Persian language. In terms of syllable pattern, the poet has used a wide variety of patterns. In terms of frequency, the patterns used also have different frequencies. Although the poet has shown no interest in using open syllables in the one-syllable pattern, he has used this syllable well in multi-syllable patterns.This study shows that the poet has limitations in using some patterns, such as not using patterns that start with cvcc in two-syllable patterns. This study also shows that in the application of each of the constructions in total patterns, the construction of cv is superior to the constructions of cvc and cvcc. In terms of the average use of each of the three constructions in all row and rhyme syllables, cv syllables are in the first place and cvc and cvcc syllables are in the next positions, which in terms of both rank and relative frequency is accompanied by spoken and written language.
Mehrzad Mansouri
Keywords : Hafez ، row ، rhyme ، syllable pattern ، syllable construction ratio
Many contemporary rhetorical scholars believe that commentaries written on well-known rhetoric books -such as Miftah Al-Oloum, Talkhis Al-Miftah and so on- often involve repetitive and non-creative topics. While this opinion cannot be completely ruled out, careful examination shows that commentators have sometimes expressed new issues in their writings. These new issues are important from the perspective of rhetorical history. One of these topics is the link between 'Badi’' and other territories of rhetoric. It is natural for us today to regard the Islamic rhetoric as having three distinct territories, namely 'Ma’ni', 'Bayan' and 'Badi’' ', but in the seventh and eighth centuries this independence was by no means certain. In this paper, the views of Sakaki explainers on 'Badi’' status and its relation to other territories of rhetoric are analyzed. Among these explainers, four classes can be identified, each with a distinct idea. The ideas are as follows: 1. 'Badi’' is part of eloquence. 2. 'Badi’' is part of eloquence and rhetoric. 3. 'Badi’' is part of the science of 'Ma’ni' and 'Bayan'. 4. 'Badi’' is independent and there is no relation to other parts of rhetoric. This paper describes the views of these four classes and analyzes the reasons for this diversity.
ruhollah hadi -
Keywords : 'Badi’' ، Eloquence ، Rhetoric ، 'Ma’ni' and 'Bayan' ، Sakaki ، Miftah Al-Oloum
The "Asynartete" is literary device to read a poem in several meter. The author of this article tracks this issue in rhetorics and shows that it has been used frequently in Persian poetry since early Persian poetry up to now. Converting a hemistich’s meter is done in eight ways: Short and long vowel saturation and desaturation, retention and elimination of Hamzeh, intensification and reduction of consonant, making vowel and no vowel of consonant. In persian poems 26 meters create asynartete in 22 states. The most commonly used is converting the meter of “Fa’elaton Fa’elaton Fa’elon” to “Mofta’elon Mofta’elon Fa’elon” and vice versa. The most commonly used methods of conversion are the four methods of "vowel saturation/ desaturation" and "retention/ elimination of Hamzeh". Another finding of this essay, is that although asynartete is not named in Persian books on rhetorics, it has been used in Persian poetry since Rashid-al-din.
Keywords : Asynartete ، Persian poetry ، Rhetoric ، Rhymes
Shahnameh is one of the most valuable works in Iranian culture and has always been of interest to people from all walks of life. Many scribes and copywriters have reproduced it and this has produced many manuscripts.There have been many differences and discrepancies in the writing of verses, interpretations and words between these manuscripts and, consequently, between the numerous editions of the Shahnameh. Minovy, Nooshin, Davies, Khatibi and Aidenlo have done some research on Shahnameh publications but no independent research has ever been conducted on the differences and discrepancies in those editions of the story of Rostam and Shoghad, which is one of the most important and prominent stories of Shahnameh. Regarding the importance of this issue, the authors of this paper, with the aim of examining the differences among the editions and manuscripts of Shahnameh in the story of ‘Rostam and Shoghad’, have focused on three editions of Shahnameh (I.e. the editions of Khaleghi, Moscow and Mohl) and by applying a comparative-analytical method, they have extracted, classified, analyzed and ultimately attempted to find the sources and causes of these differences and discrepancies.The results of this study indicate that the the main motivations to add verses (eleven verse) by the scribes have been the completion of the structure or characterization of the story, or to add to its semantic and emotional aspect. These additions can be identified mainly by the principle of "authenticity of the brief recording". Although there are various causes in phonetic and lexical interference, the main reason was to simplify the text and bring it to the audience's understanding. In any case, the main reason for all these interferences is the lack of copyright loyalty to the original text. It is worth noting that the results of this essay are restricted to this story and ought not to be generalized to every story of Shahnameh.
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Keywords : Shahnameh ، scribes ، manuscript ، Rostam & Shaghad
At the same time with Bakhtin's (1895-1975) drafting, in the early twentieth century, about "Logic of conversation” that provided the basis for the theory of Intertextuality in the 60s by Julia Christova(1941- ), Badiozzaman Forouzanfar(1899-1970) created a critical approach in writing of Sokhan-O-Sokhanvaran (printed 1929-1933) that later Abdolhossein Zarrinkoob in his literary Criticism book referred to it as "Criticism of influence" (printed 1959). This study seeks to explain Forouzanfar's attempt in creating a coherent way of expressing the efficacy and influence in form and content in Persian poetry and to compare it with “criticism of influence”, introducing it as an independent critical approach. Forouzanfar, maneuvering on the old topic of plagiarism, changed it into an effective and practical tool to describe literary influences in the Persian poetry, and despite the distance from the theoretical origins of intertextuality, he applied similar concepts in analyzing literary relationships in poetry and determining the role and position of poets in the context of history.
ahmad khatami - Maryam Mosharraf-o-lmolk - azam saadat
Keywords : Literary Criticism ، Criticism of influence ، Intertextuality ، Forouzanfar ، Sokhan-va-Sokhanvaran

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