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No 48
Vol. 48 No. 1
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Cultural clash and identity conflicts are amongst the main effects of immigration. Cultural differences between the two countries cause cultural conflicts. Immigration may cause cultural and identity differences between parents and children. Sociologists have discussed their theories about the status of acculturation and the cultural gap of immigrants in the host society. Fiction provides a ground for representing the forms and consequences of various cultural conflicts of immigration. This paper, based on sociological theories on such concepts as integration, adaptation, assimilation, and separation, investigates the three stories of "Morgh-e Eshgh", "Bozorgrah" and "Che Kasi Bavar Mikonad, Rostam". In "Morgh-e Eshgh", the struggle between two generations leads to the endless resistance and confrontation between the first and second generation of immigrants which causes difficulties in their acculturation process. In "Bozorgrah", the immigrant who has been separated from the culture and identity of the motherland tries to join the host community by choosing assimilation and integration strategies; but the past doesn't leave him alone. He gets into a precarious and challenging situation regarding the two cultures where he must answer these questions: “does it worth to preserve the culture of the ancestors?" And “does it worth to maintain the relationships with other groups of immigrants?”. In the novel, "Che Kasi Bavar Mikonad Rostam", by choosing the assimilation strategy, the child does not follow her mother's behavior and shapes her behavior based on the values and norms of the host culture. The mother who is interested in the culture of the homeland without paying attention to the host society avoids interacting with the other-land or the other culture, and by choosing a separation strategy, raises the conflict between herself and her daughter.
Keywords : immigration ، Fiction of Immigration ، acculturation
Elahi-nameh is one of Attar Neishabouri’s mystical and ethical poems with two major and minor narrative plots, which has been written to inspire readers with important mystical and ethical issues. A careful review of this book shows that the obvious weakness in narrative elements such as suspension and setting has made the "tone" of the stories the most important factor in influencing the reader. In Elahi-nameh, The key element in promoting the plot of major and minor narratives in is the dialogue, and the tone of the book has been repeated in a regular manner with the least variation, in a way that it fits the characters taking part in the dialogues. The main contrast between the characters in the major narrative is the opposition of the father and the son, which is manifested in the themes and the tones of the dialogues. The dominant tone of the father is preaching and the dominant tone of the son is persisting. The contradictory preaching/ ignorant tones are repeated in short stories, amongst the characters "the wise and the fool", "the lord and the peasant", "the king and the slave", "the mystic and the ignorant" and so on. The preaching tone is the resultant of wondering, blaming, fanatical and pseudo-philosophical tones. For this reason, elements such as the question, condition, adjective, and exclamation are used repeatedly in the dialogues, which are the main elements of the creation of the above-mentioned tones. Another important tone in Elahi-nameh is the ironic tone that is found only in short anecdotes. Elements such as prayer, sarcasm, paradox, condition, and questions have been used to create this tone. The positive character of most of the comical anecdotes is the fool which is in contrasts with God and the wise.
ali mohammad moazzeni -
Keywords : Elahi-nameh ، Attar ، Story ، Tone ، Irony ، ،
The belief of doppelganger (spirit doubles) has always existed in the culture and myths of different nations. In western literature, the myth of doppelganger is explained through psychology. In Iran, under the influence of western works, Sadegh Hedayat paid attention to the myth of doppelgänger. In Bouf-e Kour there are characters with the same identity that represent the doppelgangers for a person. These similarities will result in the lack of difference and a static society in different centuries. This research aims at studying Sadegh Hedayat and Abbas Ma’roufi’s new approach towards doppelganger in “Bouf-e Kour” and “Peikar-e Farhad”. The myth of doppelganger is studied in both novels using an analytical method. We aimed at discovering the origin and the results of this belief. Therefore, the research begins with studying the origin of doppelganger in ancient myths and legends; Otto Rank’s thoughts have also been mentioned here. Then, we will deal with the lack of change in the history as a consequence of this phenomenon. .
Atefe Moosapour - fateme casi
Keywords : Doppelganger ، Bouf-e Kour ، Peikar-e Farhad ، Myth ، Otto Rank
The folk literature is part of the culture of people that conveys their imagination, feelings, desires, and thoughts from one generation to another and represents the ethical and aesthetic criteria of a nation through different eras. In fact, it is difficult or impossible to understand and study the literary qualities of societies across history without understanding and examining their folk literature. Therefore, research on the rich treasures of Iranian folk and oral literature is of particular importance. This research aims at classifying the prominent works of Iranian folk literature into some limited specific groups according to the content and themes, and determining their genres. In order to determine the genre of Seventy Stories in "Iranian Maktabkhanei Literature" by Hassan Zolfaghari and Mahboubeh Heidari, each story has been examined in terms of three variables: content and theme, tone, and presentation. The results show that this kind of literature is mostly identifiable as belonging to didactic genre while the genres of epic and lyric have almost the same frequency. Also, the role of each sub-factor in making this genre effective is expressed separately..
saeme khorasani - reza Haidari Nori
Keywords : Folk Literature ، Oral Literature ، Maktabkhanei Literature ، Genre
Mowlavi's Masnavi-e-Manavi, aside from being the most prominent mystical texts of Persian literature has a great poetic value. One of the most poetic aspects of the language in Masnavi is the pronouns and their functions in aesthetic and semantic features of this valuable collection of poems. In this article, the concepts of defamiliarization and deviation from the norm are described based on the views of Russian formalists on the poetic function of language; then the semantic, stylistic, syntactic and lexical deviations and extra-regularity related to pronouns in the poetic evidences of Masnavi-e-Manavi and their relationships with the poet's ideas are investigated. The results show that the pronouns have a major role in the poetic and imaginative aspects of Masnavi-e-Manavi, and besides their aesthetic role, they make a great contribution to convey meaning and concepts.
sina bashiri - mahmud forutan - Ahmad Khatami
Keywords : Mowlavi ، Masnavi-e-Manavi ، pronoun ، defamiliarization ، deviation from the norm

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