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No 47
Vol. 47 No. 4
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Encountering “others” is one of the humans’ basic issues in their social life while its quality and the quality of human life are directly related to each other. It involves selecting between violence and tolerance. Through studying the approach of one of the greatest poets of Persian literature regarding this issue, this research tries to study how encountering “others” has been described in invectives as a genre in Persian literature. Anvari's invectives are among the most important resources for identifying his personality and viewpoint. Contrary to ode (Qasida) and Ghazal, the poet has more freedom of speech in invectives; thus, it is possible to learn more about the poet’s world and identity through studying this literary genre. studying the components of encountering “others” reveals the attitude of the poet and his discourse towards tolerance and violence. The results of this research indicate that Anvari encounters “others” in a violent way in his invectives, in a way that is far from tolerating or accepting “others”. Verbal violence will result in normalizing violence in social relations in encountering “others’ and pave the way for other types of violence like elimination and rejection.
Keywords : Anvari ، invective ، Qat'a ، encountering “Others” ، violence
Changes in linguistic potentials and the expansion of vocabulary storage, and the development of syntetic and rhetoric patterns in different periods of time may result in different readings and recreation of the texts. Tadhkirah (memorandum) and biographies are no exceptions. Infact, each revision of literary texts creates a new picture of the previous text. In order to find the facts in the texts with real and historical basis, especially in the history of literature, comparing writings in different periods of time and the differences between narratives according to linguistic features and intellectual features of that period is very important. It shows the difference in people’s thoughts in each period and the effect of external factors on the creation of the literary works. In " Maqamat-e Zhandeh Pil" there is a narration about Ahmad-e Jam which is narrated in one of the manuscripts of Tehran University too, but in a different way. In addition to correcting this manuscript, this research aims at finding those instances that show how narrators and those who write memorandums with some subtle changes in describing his characteristics and manners through a sentence or just a word demonstrate an obscure picture of Sheikh-e Jam. Comparing these two narratives show that in addition to some linguistic and rhetoric differences, there are some changes in the setting, and description of the events and actions which indicate that the narrators have not been that loyal to the original text. However, their similarity in sentencing and narration indicates the existence of an alder narration of the story which has probably been the source of both these manuscripts. Considering contents, both writers explicitly illustrate the same historical and geographical information about the subject with no discordance. Furthermore, this story is a clear document indicating the power and state of Suffiya in that era.
Keywords : Ahmad-e jam, ، riting Tadhkirah ، narration ، Toqrol Takin ، Sultan Sanjar ، manuscript
In this study, based on the structuralist theory of Claude Lévi-Strauss, and by using a descriptive-analytic method, the mytheme, binary oppositions and the main structure of the narratives about Gioumard myth in the ancient texts will be explained and analyzed. In this article, the function of Mithra, Mashi and Mashyaneh myth, the two main oppositions in Gioumard myth i.e. death/ rebirth, and supernatural/ natural creation will be explained and it will be shown that Gioumard’s confrontation with devil reflects the battle of good and evil which is the basis of Iranian thoughts about dualistic world- view. The everlasting battle between Gioumard as the representative of humans with Ahriman, demonstrates the continuity of life and death circle since Gioumard defeat Ahriman in his life and by his death he gives Ahriman the chance to win. Then, Ahriman unknowingly reaches the end of “the limited time” and loses the battle.
rahman zabihi - parvin paykani
Keywords : Gioumard ، Mithra ، mytheme ، binary oppositions ، Lévi-Strauss
The mystery of creation as a complicated concept is present in all aspects of life, thinking, and imagination of human beings. Art and literature provide appropriate grounds for the reflection and representation of this amazing issue. Abolghasem Ferdowsi, is a poet who was born in the era which was the climax of the flourishment of Islamic civilization and formation of Mu’tazila, Ash’ari , and Shia schools of Kalam, and his poems are based on his wisdom and thoughts about God, man and existence. In this article “remarks about the creation of the world” as a part of Shahnameh is analyzed through studying the important philosophical principles and framework (e.g. creation of the world, pre-eternity or creation in time, the primary essence and the stages of creation) about the creation of the world in Ferdowsi era. This paper tries to show whether common beliefs of Ferdowsi era have been reflected in his remarks about the creation of the world. The results show that in Shahnameh the intellectual and philosophical thoughts of ancient Iranians and Islamic philosophers are accompanied together in a way that it is impossible to delimit Fedowsi to a specific discourse or thought, and he can be considered a representative of the wisdom of “ Islamic Iran” in his era.
- mahmood modaberi - mohamadreza sarfi
Keywords : Kalam ، philosophy ، Shahnameh ، Wisdom ، creation
Translation as a connecting link between languages and cultures has always strengthened the link between Persian and Arabic languages, and the poems of Persian language poets have always been a source of interest for Arabic-language translators. Syrian poet Mohammed al-Forati (1880-1978) was one of the Arab poets and translators who translated Hafez's ghazals into Arabic poetry. In this essay, using a descriptive analytical method the translation of two ghazals of Hafez by al-Forati is analyzed. Based on Reception theory, it is discussed that although the translator had a good knowledge of Persian language, he sometimes made mistakes in understanding metonymy and Iham in the poems, and as a result, he was not successful in receiving the message from the source language and transferring it to the readers of the target language. Of course, his translation is very beautiful despite the shortcomings caused by the failure in perceiving the purpose of Hafez, and he has tried to reconstruct Hafez's poetic language regarding rhythm and rhyme. It has also become clear that he has been more successful in understanding the poems that were not open to mystical interpretation.
- mohsen sifi - Abbas Eghbaly - Reza Shajari
Keywords : translation criticism ، Hafez Shirazi ، Mohammad al-Forati, Reception theory

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