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No 49
Vol. 49 No. 2
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Some folktales have a mythic origin. In these tales, characters and events are based on a myth, and an ancient belief. One of these myths is "the goddesses". Their holiness, importance and their various characteristics have the capacity to create remarkable, variant themes in myths. In this article, the descriptive-analytic method is used as the research method. First, the mythological character of the goddess is introduced under these three titles: “The Mother Goddess”, “The Wife of Martyr” and “Anahita”. Then, their impacts on the folktales, and the way they are represented in these stories are investigated. In order to do so, “Qessehaye Amiyaneye Farsi” by Seyyed Abolghasem Enjavi Shirazi, and “Afsanehaye Azarbayjan” by Samad Behrangi have been examined.
Keywords : folktale ، myth ، goddess ، Anahita
Siavash's mourning and its associated rituals is one of the most important stories of mourning in mythology of Iran. The adventure's of Siavash has been mentioned in many classic Iranian texts and also an important part of Shahnameh is dedicated to it. Traces of many ancient rituals can be identified in Siavash's mourning. By investigating the mourning of Siavash and comparing it to the narration of Imam Hossein’s Ta'zieh, this study tries to answer the questions of why and how in Iranian mythological thinking a mundane character has transformed into a heavenly and spiritual one and this transformation is being repeated in mourning rituals. In the absence of sufficient historical resources and archives on Iranian culture and arts, one of the most important ways to review the myths and rituals is using visual resources. For this purpose, in this article, in addition to using Shahnameh and other historical texts, we have also used the images of mourning obtained from Central Asia and have compared them to a painting of the Iranian modern painter Hossein Zendehroodi. The main concern of this research is pursuing the consistency of the myth of Siavash and its ritual signs with the symbols in the mourning ceremonies of Imam Hossein and the reason of this continuity and unity of ritual signs in these two different ceremonies. In order to do so, we try to identify the similarities between the mourning rituals of Imam Hossein and Siavash mourning in a painting of Zendehroodi through comparing it with images obtained from Central Asia. According to the findings, although it seems that Zendehroodi’s work which portrays all scenes of mourning for Imam Hossein, depicts the martyrdom of Imam Hossein, in fact it represents an eternal pattern namely death and martyrdom which itself is the repetition of rituals and their associated ceremonies of ancient history. Moreover, there are many similarities, including black color, black horses, crying over the hero's body, between the visual depictions of these mournings. This has been studied using written and visual resources and prioritizing a kind of visual-iconographic reading. Descriptive-analytic method is used in this study.
kaivan shafei - anvar khalandi - mehdi ghadernezhad
Keywords : Siavash ، Imam Hossein's Ta'zieh ، mourning ، mourning rituals ، Hossein Zendehroodi
In recent decades, Iranian immigration and in particular the migration of the writers and the publication of their works have created a special phenomenon. Literary texts created by those writers and poets who are living abroad have established certain tendencies, trends and particular literary approaches outside the borders of the country. The collective body of literary works created abroad, have been named differently by different critic based on the characteristics and features that they have outlined. The authors’ issues, how they have left the country, how long they have been living abroad, and the content of their works are of great importance in defining and classifying these literary works. Furthermore, different trends can be identified in stories written abroad. In the present article, stories written by Iranian immigrants are analyzed as politics-oriented, identity-oriented, and women's stories. In the '60s up-to-the mid-'70s the politics-oriented stories are the most frequent ones. This trend is emerged by political groups and activists, and focuses on the revolution and the issues surrounding it. From the mid-70s onwards, the identity-oriented trend became the major one. In this trend, themes such as the differences between the motherland and the other-land, and the ways the immigrants encounter the new world are highlighted through the narratives about identity. Also, there were many immigrant female writers who narrated the lives and issues of female immigrants from a feminine perspective. In these stories, the ways in which women face the new world and the issues they encountered in Iran are amongst the main themes.
- Reza Shajari -
Keywords : immigration literature ، Literary trends ، identity ، politics ، women's story writing
Complement Subordination is a process that the verb accepts a complement clause as one of its obligatory dependents, and its omission makes the sentence ungrammatical. Regarding the structure, the verbs which accept complements can be simple verbs (danestan, goftan), verbs with prefixes (vagozashtan), and compound verbs (ragham zadan, agah kardan).The corpus of this research includes one thousand sentences of contemporary Persian stories. Dependency grammar is one of the formalist theories of grammar that considers the relationship between a head and its dependents in analyzing the syntactic structures. Syntactic structures of Persian language show that some verbs have one complement clause, thereby having a compliment clause is one of the specific features of the verb of the main clause. The present study tries to give a detailed description of complement clauses in Persian. In order to do so, the process of subordination will be analyzed in complex sentences in which the complement is the subordinate clause and depends on the main clause. It could be said that complement clauses which are made by the inflectional forms of the verbs, are often placed in the syntactic position of obligatory dependents of the verbs (subject, object, prepositional object).
Mohammad Dabirmoghaddam - Ali Mehrjoo
Keywords : Persian language ، complement clause ، dependency grammar ، verb
One of the main aspects of the development of contemporary Ghazal is the relative change in the prosodic circle and introducing new meters. However, researches are only focused on studying the new metrical patterns of some poets, and metrical patterns of contemporary Ghazal have not been analyzed. Adapting an analytic-comparative method, in this research, the meters of more than 2500 Ghazals of 10 prominent contemporary poets have been identified and then these meters have been compared with Khanlari’s pattern of Persian Ghazal meters. Moreover, poets’ tendencies regarding following the traditional metrical patterns and their innovations in employing new meters have been analyzed and compared. The results show that 13 among 20 major meters, proposed in Khanlari's pattern, are still considered the main Ghazal meters, and other meters are added to this pattern; however, the frequency of composing Ghazals based on Khanlari's pattern, is in general 15% less than the average in Persian Ghazals. In contemporary Ghazal, the frequency of the short meters is decreased, while the frequency of the medium, long and overlong meters are increased; however, medium meters are the most frequent in contemporary Ghazal. Among the contemporary poets, Behbahani and Monzavi are the most innovative and ingenious in employing Ghazal meters. Aref Qazvini, Rahi Mo'ayyeri, Shahriar and Mardani have shown the highest conformity with the traditional prosody while poets like Mohammad Ali Bahmani, Emad Khorasani, Farrokhi Yazdi and Ebtehaj are somewhere between the innovation and tradition.
Keywords : contemporary ghazal ، meter ، prosody ، Khanlari's pattern ، innovation

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