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No 44
Vol. 44 No. 1
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Description is a part of most literary texts. Considering its great importance, description has not been given the attention it deserves especially, in Persian literature. In this article in addition to reviewing the previous definitions and theories, by using a method close to that of structuralists, a new classification of types of description is presented which is achieved through the analysis of description in the story of Rostam and Sohrab. According to this method, description is considered a dynamic linguistic proposition (not a static one) which represents features and consists of three basic elements: subject (the descripted), describing words, and the feature. This research intends to prove that description has a crucial role in any literary text since it is the foundation of narrative and poetry. Thus, the form and content of various types of description are analyzed in the story of Rostam and Sohrab as a descriptive narrative text. It is also tried to achieve a theory of description in Persian literature based on the results.
Ghodsiyeh Rezvaniyan -
Keywords : Description ، Descriptology ، Narratology ، the story of Rostam ، Sohrab
The novel of “Ghale-Morghi, The Pyramidal Age” authored by Salman Amin, is one of the successful novels which is Concerned with unemployment and its consequences as a special social problem. Based on the American Robert Merton’s (1901– 2003) “Theory of Opportunity” this research studies different types of personality and behavioral disorders within this novel. According to Merton’s theory, social problems are the result of the gap between desirable goals of the society and the ways of achieving them. By describing the desirable goals for their members, societies can also introduce their solutions and strategies; however, when there is a gap between goals and the institutionalized means of reaching them, deviation and disorder will occur. According to this theoretical model, “Ghale-Morghi, the Pyramidal Age” represents an image of a society that has determined the same accepted goals for every one; but choosing between the possible ways of reaching them is related to individual’s social status and class. Although the main character of the novel begins to discover new ways by means of Promethean rebellion; at the end, he finds no choice other than isolation and letting go of the goals..
Keywords : Sociological criticism ، Salman Amin ، Ghale-Morghi, the Pyramidal Age ، Robert Merton ، Opportunity Theory
Jahangirnameh, written by Qāsem-e Mādeḥ is one of the epic poems that describes Rostam’s life after the death of Sohrab and then explains his acquaintance with Delnavaz, the daughter of Messiah, the praytal (Massihā-ye Ābed) and the birth of Jahangir and the narration of his courageous actions. In the first section of the story, Rostam who feels lost, confused and sad after killing Sohrab, leaves his home land and goes to Mazandaran to start an inner journey through entering the unconscious world which transforms his personality. Rostam‘s journey to Mazandaran, the events he goes through and what he experiences can be reviewed as an archetype. This research Using the notion of the process of individuality based on Jungian analytical psychology studies the archetypes in Jahangirnameh, including mask, Anima, shadow, the sage, etc. and analyzes the process of individuation of Rostam. In this story, Rostam, after killing Sohrab, becomes ready to regain his lost individuality by leaving the conscious world (Iran) and entering an unknown unconscious world (Mazandaran) and confronting the elements and aspects of unconsciousness. Rostam’s individuality which has been distorted after the death of Sohrab, is reconstructed after facing Jahangir who is a substitute for Sohrab.
Reza Satari - Aliakbar Bagheri Khalili - sogol khosravi
Keywords : Jungian Analytical psychology ، individuation ، Jahangirnameh ، Rostam
Parables (proverbs) as a part of culture and experience of old-time people represent lots of thoughts, perceptions and beliefs that have endured the course of times. Therefore, researching the parables can lead us to the origins of our ancestors’ thoughts. Sometimes, myths which are related to group unconsciousness in a mysterious way are used in parables, or in another word, sometimes parables mirror group unconsciousness, especially mythical thoughts. One of these parables which the writer believes represents a very old belief in Iranian culture is “Sheep is clean and the elephant is carrion” in the first chapter of Golestan of Sa’adi. The mythical origin of this parable is studied in this research, and it is shown that how the elephant as an Ahrimanic creature confronts the sheep as an Ahurai force, and how the fight between an elephant and a sheep can represent a fundamental belief in Iranian culture in the form of a parable. .
Keywords : Parable ، Myth ، Sheep ، Elephant ، study of origin
The mythological narratives have always been accompanied by mysterious indications and implications. One of these surprising things is the transformation of creatures and phenomena into one another. Metamorphosis is a change in the appearance, or identity of a person or a thing through the use of supernatural power. The myths about Iranian gods and goddesses who are created by human imagination can be transformed into different forms and shapes, especially the rulers or heroes living on the earth. Although so far, numerous books and articles have been written about the transformation of mythological phenomena and their analyses, as well as about the myth of Arash-e kamangir (Arash the Archer), the poem of Arash, by Siavash Kasraei is considered to have a mysterious multiplicity due to the re-creation and utilization of the principles of Mithraism and the myth of Mithra (Izad-e Mehr) and its conformity with the conditions of the society of that time. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the instances and aspects of the Metamorphosis of the myth of Mithra into Arash in this article through an innovative and deep examination of the poem. Then, the compatibility between poet’s ideas and social situations will be examined. The results show that the amazing power of Arash in defending his homeland, overcoming the deadlocks and humiliating the enemy through the use of the special Ahurai equipment is due to this metamorphosis, and could have the same function in the poet’s time.
- Jalil Khalili Jahromi
Keywords : Metamorphosis ، Myth ، Mithra (Izad-e mehr) ، Arash-e Kamangir ، Siavash Kasraei

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