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      • Open Access Article

        1 - The Comparison and Analysis of Post-Colonial Manifestations in Tayeb Salih “Season of Migration to the North” and Simin Daneshvar “Savushun” Novels
        رضا ناظميان maryam shokuhinia
        The effect of colonialism on the Third World is always under consideration in works of worldwide authors and poets. Post-Colonial Literature attempts to fight against colonialism by offering a true picture and clarifying the truth behind the matter. One of the most cert Full Text
        The effect of colonialism on the Third World is always under consideration in works of worldwide authors and poets. Post-Colonial Literature attempts to fight against colonialism by offering a true picture and clarifying the truth behind the matter. One of the most certain purposes of Post-Colonialism theory is to understand the method of Colonialism approach in forming identities of colonialist and colonized to fight against this ideology. Iran and Sudan are among the countries that were under predominance of colonialism in some past periods. “Simin Daneshvar” and “Tayeb Salih” are among the contemporary Iranian and Sudanese authors who use Post-Colonialism novel framework to unmask and uncover historical truths about fighting against colonialists. Current study reviews and examines mentioned novels in their own time with Post-Colonialism point of view; it also examines consequences of Colonialism in Iran and Arab World using Analytic-Descriptive method. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - The Comparison and Analysis of Post-Colonial Manifestations in Tayeb Salih “Season of Migration to the North” and Simin Daneshvar “Savushun” Novels
        رضا ناظميان maryam shokuhinia
        The effect of colonialism on the Third World is always under consideration in works of worldwide authors and poets. Post-Colonial Literature attempts to fight against colonialism by offering a true picture and clarifying the truth behind the matter. One of the most cert Full Text
        The effect of colonialism on the Third World is always under consideration in works of worldwide authors and poets. Post-Colonial Literature attempts to fight against colonialism by offering a true picture and clarifying the truth behind the matter. One of the most certain purposes of Post-Colonialism theory is to understand the method of Colonialism approach in forming identities of colonialist and colonized to fight against this ideology. Iran and Sudan are among the countries that were under predominance of colonialism in some past periods. “Simin Daneshvar” and “Tayeb Salih” are among the contemporary Iranian and Sudanese authors who use Post-Colonialism novel framework to unmask and uncover historical truths about fighting against colonialists. Current study reviews and examines mentioned novels in their own time with Post-Colonialism point of view; it also examines consequences of Colonialism in Iran and Arab World using Analytic-Descriptive method. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Study of Rumi and Rumi-Researchers in English Speaking Countries
        احمد  تميم‌داري
        The subject of this paper relates to comparative literature and the impact the literary figures, thinkers and illustrators have taken from Persian literary works; especially Rumi’s most significant and prominent works. The method of research in this essay is referentia Full Text
        The subject of this paper relates to comparative literature and the impact the literary figures, thinkers and illustrators have taken from Persian literary works; especially Rumi’s most significant and prominent works. The method of research in this essay is referential and inductive. We have made an attempt to become familiar with the great American and English men of letters; ones who have compiled important works through either translation or adaptation and made a serious effort to introduce the Persian literature, especially Rumi’s poetry in the English speaking countries. Since the eighteenth century, and following movements such as studying Iran, Islam, and the East, Persian literature was noticed and therefore some of the literary men, scientists, and illustrators begun translating and adapting the Persian literary works. It was in the same century that the study of Rumi’s works became significant. The English and American Transcendentalists both idealized the school of Transcendentalism through studying and having researches on Rumi’s works. It was about late nineteenth century, in 1870, that Mankar Daniel Canoy published The Sacred Anthology of Oriental Texts. Some of Rumi’s stories stated the ideals of social moral and behavioral issues. William R. Alger, one of Emerson’s friends, published The First American Anthology of Oriental Literature. Edward J. Brown translated the prose introduction of The First Volume of Massnavi into English. The climax of studies on Rumi’s works was done by Reynold Elaine Nicholson; who published eight books for the interpretation and paraphrase of Massnavi and actually devoted fifteen years of his life to this issue. Arthur J. Arbery is counted as one of the great thinkers in the field of Rumi studies. James J.Koan, an art teacher, rewrote fifty of the selected poems from Nicholson’s Poetry- taken from Shams Tabrizi’s Book of Poetry- in a modern poetic structure. And finally Andrew Harroy created some works as memorials of Rumi’s works. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - The Influence of Rumi on Fuzi Mostari about Perfect Human
        سداد  ديزدارويج
        The comparison of the attitudes of the poets and writers of different countries on the major evolutions of thought and art is one of the most significant branches in the analysis of prose and poetic texts, and also one of the major discussions in literary criticism. Com Full Text
        The comparison of the attitudes of the poets and writers of different countries on the major evolutions of thought and art is one of the most significant branches in the analysis of prose and poetic texts, and also one of the major discussions in literary criticism. Comparative literature shows us the interaction of thoughts, literature and culture among two or even more nations; while it also reveals to what extent a culture, or thought of an individual person, or rather a nation, has been developed and influenced the world. Anyhow, this branch of literary criticism is among the most important debates and discussions in the “cross-cultural” studies too, and can even be considered as one of its major principles. Among the Bosnian poets, scholars, and writers, Fuzi Mostari enjoys a special and unique position, while he was deeply influenced by Rumi in a variety of aspects. This research was prepared through a documental and referential method, studying the valid and reliable sources and documents. A thorough study and research made it clear that Fuzi was indeed seriously influenced by Rumi in the basic principles, grounds, methods and even the devices used for discussing the concept and characteristics of “perfect human”. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Rostam vs. Arjan A Comparative Study of the Characters In Shahname and Mohabaharat
        حسينعلي  قبادي عليرضا  صدیقی
        Mohabahart is an Indian work of epic, which narrates the war of Pandowan between the five sons of Raja Pand and gurus, the sons of Raja, to rule over a region called, Hastnapur. In this eighteen-day war, Pandowan defeats his cousins. Arjan, one of the characters, who s Full Text
        Mohabahart is an Indian work of epic, which narrates the war of Pandowan between the five sons of Raja Pand and gurus, the sons of Raja, to rule over a region called, Hastnapur. In this eighteen-day war, Pandowan defeats his cousins. Arjan, one of the characters, who shoulders a large number of responsibilities during different events, resembles Rostam in many ways. It is the objective of this paper to compare the two champions: their relations with gods, their marriage in a foreign land, having a son, becoming aware of revitalizing herb, going on seven dangerous journeys, and finally each killing his own brother. Attempts have been made to prove that due to the immigrations of the tribes from Iran to India, the Iranian beliefs, customs, and mythology, have had a profound impact on Indian epics. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - A Comparative Study of Education in Saadi’s Works and Tagor's Poems
        احمد  حسنی رنجبر کاینا  ابراهیمی
        Undountedly different nations owe their educational doctrines to their intellectual characters. In order to understand the educational doctrine in Iran and other countries that is close or similar to Iran, studying Saadi’s and Tagor’s thoughts considered to be reasonabl Full Text
        Undountedly different nations owe their educational doctrines to their intellectual characters. In order to understand the educational doctrine in Iran and other countries that is close or similar to Iran, studying Saadi’s and Tagor’s thoughts considered to be reasonable and significant. This research aims at dealing with this fundamental question that “what are the similarities and differences between the lyrical themes in Saadi’s works and Tagor’s poems?” Undoubtedly, the effect of cultural, climate, scientific, political and social factors has important role in forming these ideas, and is the reason of the similarities and differences in fundamental themes like paying attention to the nature of education, the value of life, death, aging, word, and etc. However, each one of these poets sometimes has his own ideas regarding a specific subject which is quite the opposite or independent of the other. In this article, the ups and downs of these poets’ ideas and their concordance and independence will be studied. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - A comparative study of the concept of moderation inthe advices of the sixth "Dinkard" and in Ferdowsi's "Shahnameh
        zahra delpazi mohammad behnamfar MOHAMMAD REZA RASHED MOHASSEL
        One of the basic concepts in Iranian thought is the principle of moderation in life affairs, which is clearly reflected in Pahlavi books and advice letters, especially in the sixth book of Dinkard, the most detailed advice letter in the Pahlavi language. In Ferdowsi's S Full Text
        One of the basic concepts in Iranian thought is the principle of moderation in life affairs, which is clearly reflected in Pahlavi books and advice letters, especially in the sixth book of Dinkard, the most detailed advice letter in the Pahlavi language. In Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, which is considered as the summary of pre-Islamic Iranian culture, moderation is one of the basic principles that has been emphasized in various advices.In this article, we have tried to represent the similarities of these two books on moderation in a comparative way and with a content analysis approach. The results show that the concept of moderation in the Sixth Dinkard and Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh are very close to one another. In both books, thr extremes of excessiveness are examples of evil, and the good that lies between them is a symbol of moderation. On the other hand, goodness equals goodwill, good thinking and good speech; Three important principles of Zoroastrian thought that are directly related to reason and guide people to a rational life based on moderation.There is also a close link between moderation and justice that evokes the concept of "asha" in Zoroastrian thought.It is noteworthy that the concept of moderation in the sixth Dinkard is more consistent with the recommendations of the historical part of the Shahnameh, especially poems related to the reign of Khosrow Anoshirvan, and sometimes the recommendations are quite similar which could be the result of the direct influence of the sixth Dinkard on Shahnameh or due tocommon sources for the two books. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        8 - Sociological analysis of Shamloo's and AbuMazi's poetry based on Henry Zalamansky's theory
        marjan aliakbarzade zehtab Hossen Yazdani
        Social developments have been reflected in Iranian and Lebanese literature since the beginning of the twentieth century in an especial way, and the poems of Ahmad Shamloo in contemporary Iranian literature and the poems of Abu Mazi in contemporary Lebanese literature ha Full Text
        Social developments have been reflected in Iranian and Lebanese literature since the beginning of the twentieth century in an especial way, and the poems of Ahmad Shamloo in contemporary Iranian literature and the poems of Abu Mazi in contemporary Lebanese literature have had special importance in terms of reflecting social developments.The present article aims to explain the reflections of social events in Shamloo and AbuMazi’s poetry based on the dominant content theory in Henri Zalamansky's sociology of literature with a descriptive-analytical approach based on the American School of Comparative Literature.The results of the research show that the contemporary social developments in Iran and Lebanon have a clear function in Shamloo and Abu Mazi's poetry and have created common themes in the poetry of these two Iranian and Lebanese poets.The two poets' response to the problems of their society - which, from Zalamansky's point of view, is reflected in various literary forms - is "the struggle for freedom". Shamloo depicts the struggle against the oppression of the Pahlavi regime and Abu Madi depicts the struggle against the oppression of the Ottoman empire.Concepts such as the hardships of immigration, patriotism, criticism of poverty and suffering of the people, complaining about the ruling tyranny, enlightenment and struggle against oppression, freedom-seeking and seeking justice are the social concepts of the poetry of these two poets. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        9 - Comparative Analysis of "Tiny Characters" in Folk Legends of Iran, Germany and Japan
        minoo hamedanizadeh soheila farhangi
        “Tiny characters” are among lovely and specific characters in world folk legends. They are very small children who have vegetable or human roots and are born into families that have longed for children, like “Nokhodi” in Iranian folklore legends. These characters can b Full Text
        “Tiny characters” are among lovely and specific characters in world folk legends. They are very small children who have vegetable or human roots and are born into families that have longed for children, like “Nokhodi” in Iranian folklore legends. These characters can be seen not only in the tales of our country but also in the legends of other nations and can be considered and studied. Thus, this research aims to study and analyze Tiny characters, comparing them and defining their characteristics.Here to achieve this goal, we used Iranians’ folk legends, gathered by Fazl-o-allah Mohtadi (Sobhi), such as “Nokhodoo”, “Jastik Nokhodi” and “Nokhodi and Deev”. Also German folk legends written by Grimm Brothers, such as “Tom thumb”, “Thumb and Thumbling”; and Japanese folk legends written by Shogo Hirata and Florence Sakade, such as “Peach boy, Little One-Inch, Little One-Inch ” are used.This research tries to show the similarities and differences of Tiny characters in the folk legends of Iran and the world with a descriptive-analytical method and with the approach of comparative literature. These similarities can be found in the vegetable origin of most of these characters and their ethical features such as confidence, responsibility, braveness, intelligence, justice seeking, fighting against oppression and so on. There are also small differences in the type of their birth, how to achieve the goals, etc., which can be considered. Manuscript Document