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    Pazhūhish-i Źabān va Adabiyyāt-i Farsī


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    • Open Access Article

      1 - "Samak" A review the name of the hero of the story "Samak Aiyar"
      Abdul Rahim  Ghanavat
      Issue 70 , Vol. 21 , Autumn 2023
      Since the publication of the book Samak Ayar -written by Faramarz son of KhodadadArjani and edited by Parviz Natal Khanleri- which is one of the oldest examples of folk storytelling in the history of Persian literature, the name of the main hero of this story, everyw More
      Since the publication of the book Samak Ayar -written by Faramarz son of KhodadadArjani and edited by Parviz Natal Khanleri- which is one of the oldest examples of folk storytelling in the history of Persian literature, the name of the main hero of this story, everywhere- From the cover of the book to the title and text of its Arabic and English translation and many articles published about it in various languages-Samak, has been recorded.The problem is that this famous name is not correct and there has been a big slip about its word and meaning.In this article, by introducing logical doubts, scrutinizing the historical inconsistencies and examining those reports of the text of the book in which the name of the hero of the story and its meaning have been discussed, this famous reading of the word Samak has been criticized and an effort has been made to the correct reading of this name and its meaning should be clarified.The result of this research reveals that the Persian literature about the name of the hero of the story Samak Ayyar has fallen into error from the very beginning. So it is time to compensate for it now. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - A Survey of Loneliness in ShafieiKadkani’s Works: (Aeeneh-e barāyesedāhā, Hezāre-ye dovom-e Āhooyekoohi, Tefli be name Shādi)
      seyyed alireza kashfinia Ahmad  Tahan Mohammad Mahdi  Torabikhah Jahromi
      Issue 70 , Vol. 21 , Autumn 2023
      Does loneliness merely mean willing or unwilling distance from the people surrounding us? or are there any other kinds of loneliness?From a long time ago, although some philosophers and psychologists have defined loneliness and its kinds, it’s not an easy task to define More
      Does loneliness merely mean willing or unwilling distance from the people surrounding us? or are there any other kinds of loneliness?From a long time ago, although some philosophers and psychologists have defined loneliness and its kinds, it’s not an easy task to define a definite borderline between kinds of loneliness. These experts have suggested that some kinds of loneliness can be merged and in some cases loneliness can be either the causes or forms of loneliness occurrence, not a specific kind.In a descriptive-analytical design, this theoretical research tries to examine the kinds and causes of loneliness in ShafieiKadkani’s poems through library and documentary methods. According to the findings of the research, among the factors of interpersonal loneliness in ShafiiKodkani's poems, we can mention the separation that is the result of his first poems.From this point of view, ShafieiKadknai is a romantic poet who mainly followsthe images and themes of the poets known to have Indian Style. With regard to intrapersonal loneliness, the poet shows a tendency for seclusionwhich is resulted from his frustration from the political and social events and his nonconformity with a group of people with whom he sees no affinity. However, there is no sign of existential loneliness (i.e., a subcategory of intrapersonal loneliness) in ShafieiKadknai’s poems. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - The study of Trauma Caused by War in the Novel "Zamin-e Soukhteh"
      Asad Abshirini Ghodrat Ghasemipour Zahra Sawaedi
      Issue 70 , Vol. 21 , Autumn 2023
      Trauma is a theory in psychology referring to any psychological pressure which the human mind is unable to accept and analyze it. The wounds inflicted on a person's mind would leave a deep impact on him and may lead his life and destiny to a different direction. There a More
      Trauma is a theory in psychology referring to any psychological pressure which the human mind is unable to accept and analyze it. The wounds inflicted on a person's mind would leave a deep impact on him and may lead his life and destiny to a different direction. There are different factors can cause trauma. One of them is war events which has an enduring effect on human's psyche. Therefore, due to the numerous wars that have plagued our country throughout the history, especially the eight-year imposed war, the literary narrative of trauma has found its way into the works of some Iranian writers.The present research was conducted in an analytical-descriptive way and it aims to investigate the literary expressions of this psychological damage in the novel "Zamin Soukhteh" by Ahmad Mahmoud and analyze the damage caused to the psyche of each of the characters. In this regard, first, we have discussed the theoretical issues about trauma, then we have analyzed and examined its effect on the characters of the mentioned novel. At the end, it was concluded that the reaction of each character is different from the other; In this way, due to the psychological wounds inflicted on them, the "Shahed" character is hospitalized in a mental asylum; "Nene Baran" distances herself from his previous personality; "Narges" falls into acute depression and "Golabetoon" completely loses his emotions. Obviously, in addition to the important fictional works in praise of the heroes who appeared in the holy defense, this novel can also be worth studying from the perspective of theoretical framework. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - A Comparative Analysis of the Novels "Farewell to Arms"and "Dar SholehāyeĀb" Based on Bakhtin's Theory of Dialogism
      fahimeh shafiee Zahra Ghoroghi hengamh Ashouri
      Issue 70 , Vol. 21 , Autumn 2023
      Dialogism, a key concept in Mikhail Bakhtin’s theory of polyphony, posits that the author's voice is parallel to the voices of the characters and is reflected in the text through various techniques.The current research, which is based on the descriptive-analytical meth More
      Dialogism, a key concept in Mikhail Bakhtin’s theory of polyphony, posits that the author's voice is parallel to the voices of the characters and is reflected in the text through various techniques.The current research, which is based on the descriptive-analytical method and based on library documents, compares the two novels "Farewell to Arms" written by Ernest Hemingway and "Dar SholehāyeĀb" written by MortezaMardiha.The purpose of this research is to explore the techniques employed by Iranian and American writers in the texts to convey their voices, as per Bakhtin's theory.The research findings reveal that both novelists although have some differences, they convey their intentions through character naming. In the novel "Dar SholehāyeĀb" the characters are archetypes and their names reflect this, while in "Farewell to Arms", the Catherine’s discourse and behavior, along with the narrator's indifferent attitude towards war, create a contrasting effect.In "Dar SholehāyeĀb", the indifferent voice of Ahanj conflicts with the sacred and serious voice of war. Military and religious discourse dominate the oral communication in "Farewell to Arms", whereas in "Dar SholehāyeĀb", the text is surrounded by the discourse of the fifth column, the Gurdian Corps, and the military. The hidden argumentative discourse in "Farewell to Arms" represents the voice of the military and religion, whereas in"Dar SholehāyeĀb", the voices of doubt and the military serve a similar purpose. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - Analysis of Social Trust in "Jāy-e Khāli-ye Salouch"
      sara pouremad hoseinali ghobadi saeed bozorg bigdeli Najmeh Dorri
      Issue 70 , Vol. 21 , Autumn 2023
      A reciprocal and ongoing interaction holds between literature and society. Some literary creations, particularly novels, represent and reflect societal concerns more than others. Drawing on Anthony Giddens’s theoretical framework, this descriptive-analytical study has b More
      A reciprocal and ongoing interaction holds between literature and society. Some literary creations, particularly novels, represent and reflect societal concerns more than others. Drawing on Anthony Giddens’s theoretical framework, this descriptive-analytical study has been aimed to delve into a social issue in Mahmoud Dowlatabadi’s"Jāy-e Khāli-ye Salouch".Trust is a crucial component in every society and an indicator of social capital, for which sociologists have proposed multiple definitions and types. Indeed, distrust remains a shaky pillar of social harm.This analysis explores the roots of the widespread distrust that Dowlatabadi narrates in "Jāy-e Khāli-ye Salouch". The results indicated that the novel spotlights how the White Revolution in Iran, with land reform as its principal policy, and its consequent troubles for Iranian villagers impacted the amplification of distrust among the misery-ridden villagers. It pinpoints that the failure of Shah’s economic policies pertaining to the White Revolution and the incapability of the social system to address public participation were among the factors that diminished social trust. Unemployment, poverty, and migration from villages were some of the main outcomes of this project. Another contributor to distrust is injustice. The transformation of the underlying pillars of economic life, the state’s poor performance, and the consequent dire economic status of villagers were the major causes of distrust represented in "Jāy-e Khāli-ye Salouch". The novel’s weightiest types of distrust were institutional and interpersonal, highlighting the villagers’ lack of trust in the government and signifying that the policies of the second Pahlavi regime were not directed toward developing different types of trust. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - Modern Immortality in the Teenage Novel (Case Study of Novels:"SanjābMahiy-e aziz"and "Shekārchi-ye Koose-yekar")
      Fatemeh Hadideh Mona Valipour
      Issue 70 , Vol. 21 , Autumn 2023
      The domination of science in the modern era and the effort to have a realistic attitude to all aspects of life have made people today unable to adopt the solutions of the ancients (such as eschatologicalimmortality) to face death. By examining different types of pre-mod More
      The domination of science in the modern era and the effort to have a realistic attitude to all aspects of life have made people today unable to adopt the solutions of the ancients (such as eschatologicalimmortality) to face death. By examining different types of pre-modern immortality, including ancestral, cultural, mystical, mythological, and eschatological, the present article has shown that their common components, i.e., communalness, certainty, and imagination, are almost opposite to the components of modern immortality. The components of modern immortality, which include individuality, uncertainty, memory (as opposed to the imagination), and the concept of eternal nature, are prominent in teenage novels of the 1390s. This research first reviewed the stages and tasks of mourning. While checking and determining the components of pre-modern and modern immortality, it has been showed the correspondence of each stage of mourning with different types of immortality. Then, relying on the novels of "SanjābMahiy-e aziz "and "Shekārchi-ye Koose-ye kar", the issue of death and the role of pre-modern and modern immortality are investigated in advancing the storyline, accepting another's death, and completing the tasks of mourning by the characters. It should be noted that the analysis of samples is based on qualitative content analysis with a descriptive-interpretive approach. The research results show that in both novels, resorting to pre-modern immortality components traps the characters in the initial stages of mourning, i.e. denial, searching, and bargaining. In contrast, the maturity of the characters with the completion of mourning tasks and reaching the stage of improvement and organization through the components of Modern immortality (centered on memory in the novel "SanjābMahiy-e aziz "and eternal nature in the novel "Shekārchi-ye Koose-ye kar" is realized. Manuscript profile
    Most Viewed Articles

    • Open Access Article

      1 - Classification of the Kramat of Olia
      Mohammad Roodgar
      Issue 60 , Vol. 19 , Spring 2021
      The main issue in all the Sufi tricks is Kramat. Kramat are unknown or less known phenomena that have hidden and supernatural causes. Neglecting the recognition, definition, classification and the mystical foundations of them, has led many to deny these facts. One of th More
      The main issue in all the Sufi tricks is Kramat. Kramat are unknown or less known phenomena that have hidden and supernatural causes. Neglecting the recognition, definition, classification and the mystical foundations of them, has led many to deny these facts. One of the necessary preconditions for the recognition of Kramat is its various classification methods. The classification of a phenomenon that human beings can not understand the causes of its causes is a complicated subject that has been addressed by mystics, Sufis and scholars. However, it has not been reported in the mystical texts of the scientific and comprehensive classification of Kramat. Most of these texts are dedicated to enumeration of Kramat samples. Kramat Sometimes classified up against contrary to habits and sometimes among themselves. The present study is devoted to the classification of Kramat among themselves and studied in more than fifteen new and old classifications of different dignity. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      2 - Analysis of the effect of short words of Nahj al-Balaghah in Persian literature (with emphasis on the wisdom of 142 Nahj al-Balaghah, citing verses of the Quran)
      Fakhrieh Namazian Jalil Tajlil Ruqayyah Sadraie
      Issue 60 , Vol. 19 , Spring 2021
      Roghaiyeh sadraie*** Nahj al-Balaghah, as one of the reliable sources that can be cited, has been called "Akho Al-Quran" (brother of the Quran). This book has been compiled by Sayyid Razi from the poets and jurists of the fourth century. Many truths of the Holy Quran More
      Roghaiyeh sadraie*** Nahj al-Balaghah, as one of the reliable sources that can be cited, has been called "Akho Al-Quran" (brother of the Quran). This book has been compiled by Sayyid Razi from the poets and jurists of the fourth century. Many truths of the Holy Quran have been described in this book.The present article uses the wisdom of 142 to examine the extent of the effect of short words of Nahj al-Balaghah in Persian literature and seeks to prove the deep and close relationship between the teachings of Nahj al-Balaghah and the Holy Quran and the impact of these teachings on Persian literature.In this article, the answers to the following questions are analyzed by descriptive method and by following the content of one of the acronyms. Is the source of the wisdom of Nahj al-Balaghah the divine knowledge of the Holy Quran? To what extent has the moral and divine knowledge of Nahj al-Balaghah dominated the Iranian literature?Obviously, the works of Persian literature have been influenced in various ways, including adaptations, allusions, inspirations, etc. from the source of revelation and, consequently, from the words of the Amir al-Mo'menin. In this article, the wisdom No. 139 of Nahj al-Balaghah has been pondered and revised with regard to the roots of words and the Quranic sources and its effect on Persian literature has been discussed. Scholars believe that Nahj al-Balaghah is the interpretation of the Qur'an. The subject of this article is to find the divine sources of the words of the Amir al-Mo'menin, and to show its reflection in Iranian literary works. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      3 - A study of the content and structure of interpretation in the spiritual Masnavi
      Maryam  Nafeli Shahrestani hosein aghahoseini
      Issue 60 , Vol. 19 , Spring 2021
      Interpretation means returning something to its original state, the background of which is to be found in Greek hermeneutics. Hermeneutics is the theory of the act of understanding in its relation to the interpretation of texts. Mystics have paid much attention to the More
      Interpretation means returning something to its original state, the background of which is to be found in Greek hermeneutics. Hermeneutics is the theory of the act of understanding in its relation to the interpretation of texts. Mystics have paid much attention to the interpretation and content of the Qur'an. Rumi has also used interpretation in Masnavi.He looked at interpretation very broadly and did not consider interpretation specific to the Qur'an; For this reason, he has used interpretation on various topics. The research method in this article is descriptive and its purpose is to study the types of interpretations in the three books of Masnavi in terms of content and structure. The interpretations used in the three books of Masnavi based on the subject are: interpretation of Quranic verses and hadiths, interpretation of the stories of the prophets, interpretation of mystical, religious and jurisprudential, moral and philosophical issues.By examining the three books of Masnavi Manavi, 136 interpretations were extracted on these subjects, most of which consistes of interpretations of Quranic verses. Rumi has used various tricks to express interpretation; Interpretation from the language of the characters of the story, interpretation in the form of similes and metaphors, allegorical interpretation and causal interpretation are among them. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      4 - mythical places in folktales
      Sara  Chalak
      Issue 60 , Vol. 19 , Spring 2021
      Mythical thought is a kind of worldview that has always saved his situation in humans mind. Mythical idea introduce itself by divide the phenomena of the world into sacred and unholy. Locality is an important mythical subject that differ from modern man’s thinking about More
      Mythical thought is a kind of worldview that has always saved his situation in humans mind. Mythical idea introduce itself by divide the phenomena of the world into sacred and unholy. Locality is an important mythical subject that differ from modern man’s thinking about place. Mythical place differ from its surrounding because it is sacred. It may be an archetype like mount or fountain, or may be it has become sacred because of the unworldly object. It has influential power to characters.it can change characters. Folktale as an old type of oral literature contain the insight, philosophic thought and life style of past human being. One of the mythical subject in folktales is locality. This places cause of the relationship with the transcendental affairs, consider as a mythical place. Most of characters in folktale, change mentally by being there and their destiny change. In this article, we tried to use the theories of great mythologists such as Mircea Eliade and Ernest Cassirer to analyze e few sets of folktales. For this purpose, the places such as mount, fountain, sea, river, garden, well were investigated.and their mythical modality was examined. my research method in this article is descriptive and analithical. . Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      5 - The"Avaze koshtegan"(The song of the slain), from the view of the Critical Theory of the Frankfurt School, with Emphasis on the Theories of Herbert Marcuse Critique of Modern Society in the Novel of the
      Mahnaz Fooladi maryam hoseini
      Issue 60 , Vol. 19 , Spring 2021
      Reza Barahani, a contemporary writer, has criticized the socio-political and cultural structure of the society of his time in his numerous novels. In this article, an attempt has been made to critique and analyze one of these novels, The"Avaze koshtegan"(The song More
      Reza Barahani, a contemporary writer, has criticized the socio-political and cultural structure of the society of his time in his numerous novels. In this article, an attempt has been made to critique and analyze one of these novels, The"Avaze koshtegan"(The song of the slain), from the view of the Critical Theory of the Frankfurt School, with Emphasis on the Theories of Herbert Marcuse (1879-1979). The German philosopher and sociologist Marcuse is known as the spiritual father of the protest movements of the 1960s. In the novel "Avaze koshtegan"(The song of the slain), Baraheni describes the cultural struggle of the academic and intellectual strata, as well as the tools of" the ruling system in suppressing and dominating the people, questions the existing order and tries to improve the situation of his society.The achivement of the research is that Baraheni in his critique of the society of his time in three section of repressive tolerance, alternative society and culture industry has criticized the socio-political and cultural society and has tried to change the situation of his society with the tools of art and pen. Move towards the ideal utopian society of the Frankfurt Theorists Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      6 - A Critical Review and Analysis of the Narrative Technique in a Story of the Golestan of Saadi
        mostafa gorji
      Issue 38 , Vol. 13 , Autumn 2015
      One of the main subjects that has been a matter of attention to the literary researchers is reviewing the narrative techniques of the poets and writers who are well known in the field of narration. Discovering the mystery of these narratives, not only can manifest th More
      One of the main subjects that has been a matter of attention to the literary researchers is reviewing the narrative techniques of the poets and writers who are well known in the field of narration. Discovering the mystery of these narratives, not only can manifest the value of the previous works, but also helps today’s writers in achieving the effective narrative techniques. Discovering the deeper layers of the Golestan of Saadi demands deep thinking, and through reviewing and reinterpreting it, new literary potentials can be found. This research aims at a critical study and analysis of narrative discourse and the structure of narration in the story about a young boxer in the third chapter of Golestan. It shows how much Saadi has been successful in induction of his beliefs through finding the proper forms related to them and based on the assimilation of form and content, he creates a piece of work which has different dimensions of a literary work all together, a work which satisfies the audience through different eras. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      7 - The Pattern of the History of Knowledge and the Resurrection of Meaning in Shahaboddin Yahya Sohrewardi's Thought
      Zahra Mahouzi  Ghobadi Ahmad Pakatchi maryam آخسسثهده
      Issue 51 , Vol. 16 , Winter 2019
      The history of knowledge that is considered by Sohrewardi in Hikmat-Al-Ishraq follows a pattern that has been formulated before him in the Sufi texts. This historical pattern which is based on a hadith attributed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) foretells the future o More
      The history of knowledge that is considered by Sohrewardi in Hikmat-Al-Ishraq follows a pattern that has been formulated before him in the Sufi texts. This historical pattern which is based on a hadith attributed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) foretells the future of esoteric knowledge of Islam after the Prophet. As to the fate of divine knowledge on earth, this pattern defines three stages: the era of knowledge by presence, the era of assenting meaning to the word, and the period in which metaphor is converted to symbol. Sohrewardi refers to this historical pattern and completes it by presenting a certain definition of the Divine Hakim and his role in interpreting the mysteries of the mystics. By this action, he makes a commentary on the history of knowledge. The fourth stage that Sohrewardi adds to this historical pattern is the resurrection stage of meaning to its truth, and it can be defined only by reference to the totality of Sohrewardi's intellectual system. The present article attempts to extract this historical pattern from the Sufi texts and then explains Sohrewardi's role in completing it. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      8 - Brevity and Deletion in Contemporary Poetry (Focusing on Nima Yushij, Ahmad Shamlu, Mahdi Akhavan Sales, Sohrab Sepehri, and Yad-al Allah Ro’yaei)
      لیلا  کردبچه
      Issue 34 , Vol. 12 , Autumn 2014
      Brevity means decorating speech from additional comments and unnecessary elements, so that the most content may be stated by the lowest number of words; this method, which is also used in old literature but its special consideration is one the most significant successes More
      Brevity means decorating speech from additional comments and unnecessary elements, so that the most content may be stated by the lowest number of words; this method, which is also used in old literature but its special consideration is one the most significant successes of Contemporary Poetry, changed the syntactical structures in addition to speech briefing. The focus of some contemporary poets to some of these methods is practically an approach toward old linguistic structures, but some others can be regarded as the linguistic achievements of Contemporary Literature. The article reviews the methods of achieving Brevity in two main groups of brevity and deletion methods in poems of a group of contemporary poets and compares them with deletion and brevity methods in Old Classic Literature; we aimed to show the effect of Old Classic Literature linguistic structures on some part of brevity structures and the degree of innovation in some deletion methods of Contemporary Poem, in addition to identifying these methods in Contemporary Poem. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      9 - The Stylistics of Mahmoud Dowlatabadi’s Novel - ‘Jay-e Khali-ye Solouch’
      ميلاد  شمعي
      Issue 13 , Vol. 7 , Spring 2009
      Style is a writer’s or a poet’s specific way of expressing their intended concepts in literary works. Style has been defined in various ways. Today, it refers to the methods that are used to analytical study of literature by using linguistic devices. It also studies the More
      Style is a writer’s or a poet’s specific way of expressing their intended concepts in literary works. Style has been defined in various ways. Today, it refers to the methods that are used to analytical study of literature by using linguistic devices. It also studies the point of view, linguistic features, the ways of characterization and formation of the theme. The main characteristics of Mahmoud Dowlatabadi’s works, especially his novel ‘Jay-e Khali-ye Solouch’ is giving importance to the language, and the poetic structure of the text. For instance, employing the region & ethnic-specific words and expressions in this novel reveals the main feature of his archaic language adapted from the works such as Tarikh-e Beihaqi. The authors of the present article attempt to explore the stylistic features of the novel ‘Jay-e Khali-ye Solouch’, studying its linguistic and poetic structures, including lexemes, imagery, variations among the sentences, rhythm, repetition, cohesion, emphasis, and so on. Manuscript profile

    • Open Access Article

      10 - Reviewing and Criticism of Research Articles on Literature in 1380 (2000) Decade
      عبدالله  راز Ahmad razi
      Issue 32 , Vol. 12 , Spring 2014
      Publishing research articles in contemporary period is an appropriate chance to share research findings of different scholars and informing audiences about new scientific achievements. Although their publishing have been quantitatively increasing in recent decade, there More
      Publishing research articles in contemporary period is an appropriate chance to share research findings of different scholars and informing audiences about new scientific achievements. Although their publishing have been quantitatively increasing in recent decade, there were no due attention to their assessment and criticism. This article, with a descriptive-analytic method, assesses those kinds of research articles published from 1381/2001 to 1390/2011. The research expresses advantages and disadvantages of these articles and presents a picture of the status of scientific article writing in domain of literary studies. In so doing, 345 articles were selected as examples and most important subjects under focus of authors were identified and were classified in frame of text-based, context-based, author-based, reader-based, and different articles. Moreover, patterns of cooperation between authors, and quality and quantity of used resources in these articles were presented in different charts and tables. As this issue is so important and to assess the accuracy of obtained results from main sample size, another set of 345 articles were exactly reviewed in two groups of “evidence 1” and “evidence 2”. This review shows that although articles have various subjects, apply different kinds of resources, consider some interdisciplinary approaches particularly in second half of this decade relative accuracy in composing coherent articles, specialty of some journals related to literature and considerable increase of university instructors and students cooperation in publishing articles, there are lots of deficiencies in these articles, like methodology, dominance of descriptive approach, repeated contents, lack of critical view, high frequency of education-based articles, and spread of quantitative and formal criteria and so on… Manuscript profile
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    hosseinali Ghobadi (Professor of Tarbiat Modares University) Mehdi Mohaghegh (Professor, University of Tehran) Ahmad Tamimdari (Professor of Allameh Tabatabaei University) Naser Nikoobakht (Professor of Tarbiat Modares University) Seyed Jafar Hamidi (Professor of Shahid Beheshti University) Saeed Bozorg Bigdeli (Associate Professor of Tarbiat Modares University) Ahmad Khatami (Professor of Shahid Beheshti University) Mostafa Gorji (Professor of Payame Noor University) Hakimeh Dabiran (Professor of Kharazmi University) Mojtaba Monshizadeh (Professor of Allameh Tabatabaei University) Manouchehr Akbari (Professor, University of Tehran) (Professor of Allameh Tabatabaei University) mohammad taghavi (Professor of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad) Mahin Panahi (Professor of Al-Zahra University) Ahmad Razi (Professor of the University of Guilan) Zahra Parsapoor (Associate Professor, Institute of Humanities and Cultural Studies) hejabi gherlanghich (Professor at Ankara University) Seyyed Mostafa Mousavi Rad (Associate Professor, University of Tehran) Mohammad naser Rahyab (Professor of Herat University ) Zeinab Saberpoor (Assistant Professor Tarbiat Modares )
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